File Name: advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires in research .zip
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys
- Questionnaire Method of Data Collection : Advantages and Disadvantages
- The advantages and disadvantages of using questionnaires in research
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys
Questionnaires are a very useful survey tool that allow large populations to be assessed with relative ease.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys
Read this article to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaire method of data collection. It is an economical way of accumulating information. It is economical both for the sender and for the respondent in time, effort and cost. The cost of conducting the study with the help of questionnaire method is very low. In questionnaire the researcher has to spend for paper printing and postage only.
There is no need to visit each and every respondent personally. So it does not require high cost for conduct of the research.
It is probably the best method to collect information, compared to the other methods like interview or observation, when the sample population is spread over a large territory.
It permits a nationwide or even international coverage. Questionnaire makes it possible to contact with many people who could not otherwise be reached. It can cover a large group at the same time. Goode and Hatt say that when the researcher has to cover the group of respondents who are widely scattered, lie can use the questionnaire in order to minimize the cost. For example, if the researcher wishes to poll the membership of the American Sociological Society, transportation costs for interviewing would be excessive, both in terms of money and time.
There may not be enough time to make the necessary interview. However, questionnaires could be distributed to all those members and information could be collected from them. This can be done by a single researcher without the large funds otherwise required to hire an interviewing staff to carry out the interview.
Replies may be received very quickly in questionnaire method. In this case there is no need to visit the respondent personally or continue the study over a long period. The information about certain personal, secret matters can be best obtained through questionnaire method.
For example, information about sexual relationship, marital relationship, secret desires etc. Compared to other methods like schedule, interview or observation, questionnaire method is regarded as more useful and cheap, where the repetitive information has to be collected at regular interval.
Questionnaire is comparatively an easier method to plan, construct and administer. It does not require much technical skill or knowledge. It puts less pressure on the respondents for immediate response.
He can answer it at his own leisure, whereas interview or observation demands specific fixation of time and situation,. As it is administered, in a written form, its standardized instructions for recording responses ensure some uniformity. Questionnaire does not permit much of variation.
Questionnaire may be used as a preliminary tool for conducting a depth study later on by any other method. Questionnaire has some unique merits as regards validity of information. In methods like interview and observation, the reliability of responses depends on the way the investigator has recorded them. Here they may present biased or prejudiced information of their own. But in questionnaire method, the responses given by the subjects are available in their own language and version. Therefore, it cannot be wrongly interpreted by the researcher.
Questionnaire ensures anonymity to its respondents. The respondents have a greater confidence that they will not be identified by anybody for giving a particular view or opinion. They feel more comfortable and free to express their view in this method. Questionnaire is no doubt the most flexible tool in collecting both quantitative and qualitative information. One of the major limitations of the questionnaire is that it can be applicable only to those respondents who have a considerable amount of education.
It can neither be used for illiterate nor for semi-literate persons. These are the people who constitute a very important segment of the respondents to be covered in the collection of data, but they can be seldom caught.
Thus questionnaires are hardly appropriate for a larger section of this type of population. As in case of questionnaire the researcher does not go to the field, he is not able to establish a proper personal relationship with the respondents.
If the respondent fails to understand some of the technical terms or he has any doubt, there is nobody to clarify these technical terms or doubts. Even though the researcher tries in the best possible manner to make the questionnaire a simple, precise and convenient one, the aim and objective of the questionnaire can be much better explained personally than through any other means. Without the proper personal contact it is very difficult to motivate the respondent to fill up the questionnaire.
In case of mailed questionnaire method, the proportion of return is usually low. The factors which are likely to affect the returns are: the layout of the questionnaire, its size, the organisation conducting the research work, the nature of appeal, the kind of respondents chosen for research, inducement for response etc.
The information collected through questionnaire cannot be said to be very much reliable or valid. If the subject misinterprets a question or gives an incomplete or indefinite response very little can be done to connect such response.
As against this, in an interview there is always the possibility of rephrasing questions for further clarification. The questions can be repeated with adequate elaboration if it is so required. But in questionnaire method there is no opportunity for repeating questions, explaining them or clarifying the doubts for a particular response.
The investigator here is not in a position to observe the gestures and expressions of the respondents. He cannot cross check the inconsistencies or misrepresentation of the replies. So in questionnaire method, reliability of responses is very low.
Illegible handwriting of the respondent sometimes creates much difficulty for the researcher to understand the responses. Sometimes the respondents erase and over write too much. These create many difficulties in reading the answers. Often most of the respondents fill up the questionnaire form very poorly. They sometimes leave out many questions altogether or fill in such a way that, it becomes very difficult on the part of the investigator to follow those responses.
Other than this, there may be the problem of language, use of abbreviations and ambiguous terms etc. All these make a questionnaire an incomplete one. He can judge a respondent, his attitude, understanding of the research topic and, if necessary, can ask some cross questions to correct various errors.
So usually the respondent cannot manipulate his answer. But in questionnaire it is very difficult to detect the errors of the respondents. Here the investigator does not have any facility to check the validity and reliability of the information. In the absence of the researcher, the respondents may supply manipulated information.
In questionnaire method, it is not possible on the part of the researcher to conduct an intensive or in-depth study of the feelings, reactions and sentiments of the respondents. All these require a healthy interaction of the researcher with the respondents. But in questionnaire method, the investigator is not present in the field, so nothing can be done to establish rapport with the respondent. So through questionnaire method one cannot conduct an in-depth study.
The respondents who return the questionnaires may not constitute a representative section of the entire group. Only mere responsible, research minded or those in favour of the issue may prefer to respond. Some of the important sections of the group may totally remain silent. This vitiates the final conclusions and findings. There are many people who would not like to share any important information unless and until they are impressed about the rationale of the study and personality of the investigator.
The questionnaire does not provide for any opportunity to the investigator to establish rapport with the subject and this cannot attract the respondent for a better response. Some of the research areas are so delicate, sensitive, intricate and confidential in nature that it becomes difficult to frame questions on them. It is impossible to put down certain delicate issues in writing. Points to be Considered While Organizing a Questionnaire.
Questionnaire Method of Data Collection : Advantages and Disadvantages
As with any other method in the academic field, there are various advantages and disadvantages of utilizing surveys. A survey provides a method suitable for a number of topics and specializations in different areas of knowledge. Hence, the nature of the topic and the outcome sought decide what provides the most suitable method to collect data. Furthermore, a number of scholars consider the survey as one of the best methods to gather the largest amount of data from participants. A broad outline of the significance of the use of surveys within many fields exists in the literature, including the social sciences. Using surveys, researchers can obtain different types of data such as beliefs, opinions, behaviors, and attitudes of the participants. Surveys demonstrate a
Surveys are easy to develop, especially when using the advanced survey software solutions available today. Many researchers are tempted to do much of their data collection online; however, it is not always the preferred mode of data collection, especially if respondents are in hard-to-reach areas. Whether a researcher uses an online survey , mobile survey , paper survey , or a combination of all modes, the mode should depend on the type of study and the demographics of respondents. Online surveys and mobile surveys tend to be the most cost-effective modes of survey research, yet they may not reach those respondents that can only respond using alternate modes. Results of online surveys and mobile surveys may suffer and differ greatly if important respondents are left out of the research. Hard-to-reach respondents may be easier to reach using more traditional methods such as paper surveys or face-to-face interviews. Advanced survey software solutions have multi-mode capabilities for online surveys, mobile surveys, email surveys, paper surveys, kiosk surveys, and more, giving researchers the ability to survey even the hardest-to reach consumers, and analyze data from all survey modes collectively.
Read this article to learn about the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaire method of data collection. It is an economical way of accumulating information. It is economical both for the sender and for the respondent in time, effort and cost. The cost of conducting the study with the help of questionnaire method is very low. In questionnaire the researcher has to spend for paper printing and postage only. There is no need to visit each and every respondent personally.
The advantages and disadvantages of using questionnaires in research
This article aims to identify and explain some of the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires. Questionnaires are often used by researchers in quantitative research as they are understood to be very useful to collect large amounts of data from a large sample of people. However, questionnaires are not without some limitations. It is, therefore, important for researchers to examine the advantages and disadvantages of questionnaires before deciding whether they should use this instrument in their research or not. According to Cambridge Dictionary , a questionnaire is a list of questions that several people are asked so that information can be collected about something.
Surveys can be conducted in various ways like telephone interviews, personal interviews, mail surveys, email surveys, internet surveys, computer direct interviews or questionnaires. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages and much depends on the target audience. We shall discuss here the advantages and disadvantages of using questionnaire research. The questionnaire is a structured technique for collecting primary data in a marketing survey.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys
Use of questionnaire in field research offers the following advantages. The questionnaire has great potentialities when it is properly used. It is an economical way of accumulating information of significance from international marketer.
Have you ever wondered if conducting a questionnaire is a viable option for your research? In this article, we will focus on the one we know best: questionnaires. As with every research method, there are pros and cons.
Questionnaires have been used since the 19th century. Often used as a method for collecting information, the questionnaire was first developed in London in A questionnaire can be defined as a set of questions along with answer choices asked for respondents which are mainly used for gathering information or for survey purposes. Questionnaires are usually used for collecting data from the respondents through a series of questions and other prompts set by the organization conducting such experiments. Questionnaires are not necessarily statistical data , but they do act as an effective alternative for surveys since they are cheap and can be widely used to reach within people in a short period of time.
10 Advantages of Questionnaires. Questionnaires are inexpensive. Questionnaires are practical. Questionnaires offer a quick way to get results. Scalability. Comparability. Easy Analysis and visualization. Questionnaires offer actionable data. Respondent anonymity.
Сьюзан замерла возле вентиляционного люка. Крик оборвался столь же внезапно, как и раздался. Затем наступила тишина. Мгновение спустя, словно в дешевом фильме ужасов, свет в ванной начал медленно гаснуть. Затем ярко вспыхнул и выключился .
- Итак, если Танкадо хотел, чтобы мы обнаружили его почту, зачем ему понадобился секретный адрес. Сьюзан снова задумалась. - Может быть, для того, чтобы вы не заподозрили, что это приманка. Может быть, Танкадо защитил его ровно настолько, чтобы вы на него наткнулись и сочли, что вам очень повезло. Это придает правдоподобность его электронной переписке.
Танкадо прошел проверку на полиграф-машине и пережил пять недель интенсивного психологического тестирования.
И уже мгновение спустя ее осенило. Ее глаза расширились. Стратмор кивнул: - Танкадо хотел от него избавиться. Он подумал, что это мы его убили. Он почувствовал, что умирает, и вполне логично предположил, что это наших рук .