File Name: human population and environment .zip
- Population and environment: a global challenge
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Linking Population, Health, and Environment
The environmental consequences of increasing human population size are dynamic and nonlinear, not passive and linear. The role of feedbacks, thresholds, and synergies in the interaction of population size and the environment are reviewed here, with examples drawn from climate change, acid deposition, land use, soil degradation, and other global and regional environmental issues. The widely-assumed notion that environmental degradation grows in proportion to population size, assuming fixed per capita consumption and fixed modes of production, is shown to be overly optimistic.
Population and environment: a global challenge
The number of people on Earth, where they live, and how they live all affect the condition of the environment. People can alter the environment through their use of natural resources and the production of wastes. Changes in the environmental conditions, in turn, can affect human health and well-being. Human demographic dynamics, such as size, growth, distribution, age composition, and migration of population, are among the many factors that can lead to environmental change. Consumption patterns, development choices, wealth and land distribution, government policies, and technology can mediate or exacerbate the effects of demographics on the environment.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Alcamo, J. A report of the Conceptual Framework Working Group. Washington, DC: Island Press.
The current population of the Earth is almost 7. While a lot of positive steps are being taken to better ensure the sustainability of humans on our planet, the problem of having too many people has made lasting solutions more challenging to find. The term overpopulation is used to describe a situation in which the world or area has a population so large that the people there are suffering as a result. In other words, the population exceeds the region or planet's carrying capacity--the number of people, other living organisms, or crops that can be supported without environmental degradation. Their suffering may include a shortage of food, limited access to healthcare and other public services, overcrowding, and high unemployment.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Human population growth, along with technological development and levels of consumption, is a key driver of our devastating impact on the environment. This must be acknowledged as a matter of urgency. Otherwise, we risk bequeathing future generations a tragic choice between introducing explicitly impermissible coercive population policies, becoming incapable of securing even basic human rights, and worsening climate change and other environmental damage. However, this chapter warns against approaching questions of population from too narrow an environmental ethics viewpoint. If this debate is conducted in isolation from considerations of global justice, there is a real danger of advocating policies that are plausible on the surface but impermissible when assessed in terms of their implicit impact on individual human lives. Keywords: population , environmental ethics , global justice , circumstances of justice , population-tied policies , procreative rights , ecological footprint , IPAT equation. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.
The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics e. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems. In , the U.
Population , in human biology, the whole number of inhabitants occupying an area such as a country or the world and continually being modified by increases births and immigrations and losses deaths and emigrations. As with any biological population, the size of a human population is limited by the supply of food, the effect of diseases, and other environmental factors. Human populations are further affected by social customs governing reproduction and by the technological developments, especially in medicine and public health , that have reduced mortality and extended the life span. Few aspects of human societies are as fundamental as the size, composition, and rate of change of their populations. Such factors affect economic prosperity, health, education, family structure, crime patterns, language, culture—indeed, virtually every aspect of human society is touched upon by population trends. The study of human populations is called demography—a discipline with intellectual origins stretching back to the 18th century, when it was first recognized that human mortality could be examined as a phenomenon with statistical regularities. Demography casts a multidisciplinary net, drawing insights from economics, sociology, statistics, medicine, biology, anthropology, and history.
Linking Population, Health, and Environment
Human overpopulation or particularly human population overshoot refers to a human population being too large in a way that their society or environment cannot readily sustain them. It can be identified with regional human populations, but is generally discussed as an issue of world population. Overpopulation is argued to be the cause, due to demographic pressure, of overconsumption and subsequently overshoot. This leads to exceeding the carrying capacity of a geographical area and damaging the environment faster than it can be replenished.
While the causes are complex, one significant contributor to the problem is population growth. Understanding the relationship between population growth and environmental issues may be the first step toward identifying real solutions. Population growth is the increase in the number of people living in a particular area. Since populations can grow exponentially, resource depletion can occur rapidly, leading to specific environmental concerns such as global warming, deforestation and decreasing biodiversity. Populations in developed countries trend toward using substantially more resources, while populations in developing countries feel the impacts of environmental problems more quickly.
Хейл вгляделся в темноту, выискивая глазами место, где прятался Стратмор. Шеф внезапно замолчал и растворился во тьме. Это пугало Хейла. Он понимал, что времени у него .
Этой своей мнимой перепиской Танкадо мог убедить Стратмора в чем угодно. Она вспомнила свою первую реакцию на рассказ Стратмора об алгоритме, не поддающемся взлому. Сьюзан была убеждена, что это невозможно. Угрожающий потенциал всей этой ситуации подавил. Какие вообще у них есть доказательства, что Танкадо действительно создал Цифровую крепость.
Глаза немца сузились. - Ein Ring, - сказал Беккер. - Du hast einen Ring. У вас есть кольцо.
Подожди минутку! - махнул он рукой, словно прося ее остановиться. - Стратмор сказал, что у них все в порядке.