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Geographical Information Systems in Hydrology pp Cite as.

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National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Two infrastructures in particular facilitate the use of geographic data: spatial data and telecommunications infrastructures. This chapter begins by describing and illustrating national and global spatial data infrastructures. The remainder of the chapter reviews current status and future trends in telecommunications infrastructure in Africa. Within the context of telecommunications lie fixed-line and wireless telephone services, computer infrastructure, Internet infrastructure, and media tools for dissemination of geographic information.

Progress in the use of geographic information for decision-making will be enhanced when efficient spatial data and telecommunications infrastructures coexist. The following quotations emphasize the importance of SDIs in Africa:. Building infrastructure for geo[graphic] information use is becoming as important to African countries as the building of roads, telecommunications networks, and the provision of other basic services.

The cost-effective development of [a spatial data infrastructure] requires the coordinated harnessing of resources and expertise residing in various government agencies, the private sector, universities, non-governmental organizations, and regional and international bodies EIS-Africa, African countries are going through a familiar phase that many countries have gone through in their GIS development whereby different sectors engage in GIS activities without coordination.

It is not uncommon to find different agencies collecting the same data at the same or different times ECA, A variety of geographic data is produced, used, maintained, and shared in application areas that include transportation, environment, natural resources, agriculture, health, emergency services, and telecommunications Lachman et al. Data are collected and archived in varied formats. These data are primarily paper maps or in digital form and can be analyzed in GISs. If the data are to be used effectively for decision-making, they must be well managed.

This goal can be accomplished by producing, organizing, storing, and distributing data cooperatively using SDI concepts NRC, An SDI promotes data access, use, and sharing to improve the application of geographic information by decision-makers at all scales FGDC, For informed decision-making and effective governance countries require knowledge about their physical and social geography Groot, SDIs provide a framework that facilitates these actions and make it possible to use data many times for many applications.

Thus, countries can benefit economically from SDIs. For example, the government of Australia is developing the Australian Spatial Data Infrastructure to underpin the planning and management of land use, infrastructure, mining, agriculture, forestry, environment,. A spatial data infrastructure consists of the technological, organizational, and management requirements that constitute the framework for a functional spatial data system.

The concept of an NSDI is recent and acceptance by developed countries is far from complete. Developing countries can learn from the mistakes of those who have gone before and potentially bypass similar problems toward an efficient SDI Taylor, The FGDC works to.

The U. NSDI gained prominence in following the publication of U. It elevated the NSDI from a technical subject to an essential component of social and economic development Groot, The order indicates that all efforts described in the NSDI are to be carried out through partnerships among federal, state, and local government agencies and the public, private, and academic sectors. The barriers that hamper other countries from adopting a formal SDI include a lack of prominent SDI champions in influential positions and declines in funding for SDI-related projects.

An SDI comprises standards, framework foundation data, framework thematic and other geographic data, metadata, clearinghouses, and partnerships. Spatial data infrastructures cannot function without standards. Standards are specifications and documented practices applied to spatial data formats, data compression and decompression formats, data transmission formats, metadata formats, and computer interfaces that allow people to easily interact within the system. A lack of standards impedes spatial data collection, distribution, and processing.

Consequently, countries such as Ghana and South Africa have begun to develop standards for their spatial data. Organizations such as EIS-Africa Box are working to develop generic information technology-based standards e. Over the last 10 years several international efforts in standards development have been initiated. For example, in the European Committee for Standardization began promoting voluntary technical harmonization in Europe and. Focus: EIS-Africa facilitates the strategic development and use of geographic information in environmental management and sustainable development in Africa.

Sponsors and partners: EIS-Africa is a non-profit, pan-African organization of geo-information practitioners and institutions. Membership is open to all sectors: There are 24 member countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and over 2, individual and institutional members.

The original program was funded and supported by several donors and international development agencies, including the World Bank, the government of Norway, the U.

Development Program, and the U. Key results to date: The EIS-Africa network consists of information managers, decision-makers and other professionals, as well as institutions in sub-Saharan Africa that produce or use environmental information for a variety of purposes.

EIS-Africa serves as a pool of expertise, technical resources, and a knowledge base for assisting African governments and civil society to meet their priority needs for information on the environment, natural resources, and sustainable development. Numerous workshops and conferences, including the Africa-GIS series which began in , have been held to exchange information, build partnerships, and develop a network of relationships throughout Africa.

However, the organization is trying to address such issues EIS-Africa, The organization also has difficulties convincing governments of the value of SDI within their own borders. It is even more difficult to persuade them of the value of cross-border data sharing and cooperation on common data policy issues.

Often the bureaucratic interests are defined narrowly and provincially, and the notion of regional cooperation appears to be a low priority. To address such issues, EIS-Africa sees the future of SDI in Africa in terms of building a network of field practitioners who understand the value of cooperative activity through their own experiences. Most European countries support this effort. Both the European Committee for Standardization and the ISO reached an agreement in to ensure a joint international standard.

Additionally, the Digital Geographic Information Exchange Standards were developed to support the efficient exchange of digital information among North Atlantic Treaty Organization nations. In the European Joint Steering Group on Spatial Standardization and Related Interoperability was created to insert spatial technology into mainstream information technology and to develop standards.

As a result people can use different types of GIS software and their associated data on a variety of devices e. Furthermore, a GIS user can process data from dispersed sources. The OGC has an interoperability program composed of a series of initiatives to accelerate the development and acceptance of OGC specifications M. Reichardt, OGC, personal communication, The purpose of this project is to remove technical obstacles to sharing earth observation data.

It is a direct result of the U. Framework foundation data usually consist of three spatial data layers: 1 geodetic control, 2 digital elevation and bathymetry, and 3 digital ortho-imagery NRC, , Because people are central to Agenda 21 issues it is appropriate for human population distribution to be a fourth foundation layer Figure Geodetic control is the common reference system for establishing the coordinate position i. It ties all. The Open GIS Consortium OGC is an international industry consortium of more than companies, government agencies, and universities participating in a consensus process to develop publicly available geographic information processing specifications OGC, The OGC sets standards so that the commercially available geographic information processing software and data produced by them are interoperable.

The OGC is developing open, common graphical user interfaces to communicate between software system components. OGC interfaces provide access to both information and functionality. The OGC also works to develop software approaches that address inconsistent data dictionaries and metadata schemas OGC, This system allows users to locate objects e. Invariably, raw elevation data are converted into more visually understandable displays, including contour maps and shaded relief maps.

Land-surface elevation is generally measured relative to mean sea level or some other datum. The elevation of terrain below a water body is referred to as bathymetric data NSDI, The Geospatial Information for Sustainable Development Initial Capability Pilot ICP is the first of a series of projects to make geographic information more accessible and useful to decision-makers working on sustainable development challenges. The goal is not to create yet another network of data sources for Africa; rather, it is to create a framework of existing networks that leverage the work already accomplished by making it easier and quicker to discover, combine, and exploit existing data.

ICP offers a path to this vision. It will deliver a limited but operational framework of services to illustrate how interoperable applications can improve information sharing and application in Africa. This initiative emphasizes the value of public-private partnerships and international and industry standards to make geographic information and interoperable technologies more accessible to researchers and practitioners.

Often the products from different vendors meet similar requirements but fail to mesh because of vendor-proprietary formats and different processing approaches. The ICP is funded by the U. The intended result is a limited but operational framework of interoperable Web-based and stand-alone applications and servers operating as a single network. This will be facilitated by commercial and non-commercial software that uses OpenGIS specifications, which should greatly simplify the process of data and application sharing.

Each geodetic control point in a spatial data infrastructure includes name, identification code, latitude and longitude, orthometric height, ellipsoid height, and metadata. The metadata for each geodetic control station contains descriptive data, positional accuracy, and condition information.

For land surfaces, the framework generally uses an elevation matrix. For depths, the framework consists of soundings and a gridded bottom model NSDI, A spatial data infrastructure SDI typically consists of framework foundation data such as geodetic control, digital elevation and bathymetry, and ortho-imagery. Because of the central nature of people in sustainable development, data on human population distribution are equally important. Where possible, SDIs also contain essential framework thematic data layers, including hydrology, political and other boundaries, transportation resources, and cadastral information.

Other thematic information such as socioeconomic data, vegetation, soils, geology, and land cover may be included in the infrastructure adapted from FGDC, An ortho-image is a specially processed image prepared from an aerial photograph or remotely sensed image that has the metric qualities of a traditional line map with the detail of an aerial image.

They also can be used as a reference base map to which other maps or images can be linked to detect changes in the landscape. People are both influenced by and have an impact on ecosystems in which they live, and are therefore central to Agenda 21 issues.

Information on the geographic distribution of the human population and their attributes are equally as important as other SDI framework foundation data. In the current worldwide development arena, such key issues as good governance, anti-poverty strategies, and the need to promote economic growth with social equity all require population distribution and other demographic data at the local scale.

Geographically referenced, standardized census data that can be linked to other layers of geographic data are required to meet national development needs. Progress toward Agenda 21 goals is impeded by the lack of reliable data on human population distribution.

Information Cartography: Using GIS for Visualizing Non-Spatial Data

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Visual attention is broadly defined as the ability to rapidly detect and respond to stimuli within the surrounding environment and to effectively select between relevant and irrelevant visual information. As a complex cognitive function, attention entails multiple components or dimensions, including both spatial and non-spatial mechanisms, sub-served by widely distributed but highly specialised fronto-parietal neural networks. Spatial attention i.

A geographic information system GIS is a conceptualized framework that provides the ability to capture and analyze spatial and geographic data. GIS applications or GIS apps are computer-based tools that allow the user to create interactive queries user-created searches , store and edit spatial and non-spatial data, analyze spatial information output, and visually share the results of these operations by presenting them as maps. Geographic information science or, GIScience —the scientific study of geographic concepts, applications, and systems—is commonly initialized as GIS, as well. Geographic information systems are utilized in multiple technologies, processes, techniques and methods. GIS provides the capability to relate previously unrelated information, through the use of location as the "key index variable". Locations and extents that are found in the Earth's spacetime , are able to be recorded through the date and time of occurrence, along with x, y, and z coordinates ; representing, longitude x , latitude y , and elevation z. All Earth-based, spatial—temporal, location and extent references, should be relatable to one another, and ultimately, to a "real" physical location or extent.

Spatial data contains more information than just a location on the surface of the Earth. Any additional information, or non-spatial data, that describes a feature is.

Customized Data Request: Non-Spatial Data

Neglect is one of the most impressive neuropsychological disorder, for both its theoretical and clinical relevance. Besides being very common and disabling, it is highly informative for understanding normal cognitive functioning. The hallmark of neglect is the failure to attend to the contralesional hemispace. However, several studies have recently highlighted that additional deficits, not attributable to a spatial bias, are associated to the impaired contralesional hemispace processing.

National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

No matter what your interests are or what field you work in, spatial data is always being considered whether you know it or not.

Information Cartography: Using GIS for Visualizing Non-Spatial Data

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Two infrastructures in particular facilitate the use of geographic data: spatial data and telecommunications infrastructures. This chapter begins by describing and illustrating national and global spatial data infrastructures. The remainder of the chapter reviews current status and future trends in telecommunications infrastructure in Africa.

A symbolic image is an array representing a set of objects and a set of direction relations among them. Symbolic images can be the source for retrieving direction relations via the Pictorial Query-by-Example PQBE language, a visual language which generalises from the example given by the user and is based on skeleton images which are by themselves symbolic images. This paper presents an implementation of the PQBE language. The PQBE language is enriched with SQL-like predicates for non-spatial attributes and symbolic images are combined with a relational database scheme in a prototype visual database system, which integrates spatial and non-spatial management. Skip to main content Skip to sections. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available. Advertisement Hide.

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