Mechatronic Hands Prosthetic And Robotic Design Pdf

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Books/1785611542 Mechatronic Hands Prosthetic And Robotic Design Control Robotics And Sensors

Metrics details. Restoring human hand function by mechatronic means is very challenging in robotics research. We make a concentration on a type of intrinsically-actuated robot hands, wherein the driving, transmission, and control elements are totally embedded in the hand. According to different application scenarios, we develop robot hands in two parallel lines, dexterous robotic hand and anthropomorphic prosthetic hand.

This feature endows our robot hands with compact appearances, simple integration, and large flexibilities. At last, we give some perspectives on the future development of dexterous hands from the aspects of structure, functionality, and control strategies.

To achieve effective explorations, a dexterous end-effector with superior operation and perception capabilities is an urgent need. Although traditional grippers can deal with some simple, fixed tasks grasping and transferring workpieces , their low commonality, humble perception and insufficient flexibility make them hardly competent to complex operations in unstructured environment. Then, dexterous robotic hands DRHs with multiple degrees of freedom DOFs , superior operational and perceptional capabilities arouse great attentions in the robot society [ 1 ].

Currently, although a large progress has been made, the DRHs available on the market still cannot compete to biological hands due to current technical constraints on actuators, sensors and control means. As a branch of robotic hand research, the anthropomorphic prosthetic hand APH is a type of bio-mechatronic device used to restore hand motions for amputees or paralyzed patients. On this topic, great efforts have been made from both robotics and biomedical engineering.

However, current prosthetic hands still cannot compete to a human hand in respect of structure, sensing, and control strategy. Only a few of prosthesis products can obtain their commercial success. Because of unintuitive control feelings, lack of sensory feedback, and poor hand functionality [ 3 ], a large portion of users often refuse to use their prosthesis. The advanced prosthetic hand systems are then characterized by its anthropomorphic appearance, congenital dexterity including both mechanical structure and sensors , and high-level mechatronic integration.

However, studies also shows that, as the number of the active joints increases, the dexterity of a prosthetic hand may even decrease due to the intensified control complexity. Therefore, the prosthetic hand design should consider more comprehensive factors, such as the compromise between dexterity and controllability, the suitability and adaptability of the sensory feedback, as well as essential neural rehabilitation principles [ 5 ].

After briefly reviewing some representative studies, in this paper, we detail our development process of several DRH and APH prototypes. From a view of bio-mechatronics, we also prospect some directions on the development of advanced robot hands, after fully acknowledging the challenges in front of us.

So far, over hundreds of robot hands, including DRHs and APHs, have been developed in academic colleges, research institutions and companies. According to drive position inside or outside the hand , the DRH can be mainly divided into two categories: intrinsic actuation pattern IAP or extrinsic actuation pattern EAP. Driven by air muscles, the shadow hand has more than 20 DOFs that endows the hand with noticeable grasp functions.

Besides pure IAP and EAP, many DRHs such as the iCub hand [ 15 ] also adopt a hybrid driven pattern, wherein multimodal sensors tactile, position, and force are also integrated for providing more proprioception information. Meanwhile, the Dexhand also has some special design, such as its transmission system Dyneema tendon plus harmonic reducer , control system totally integrated into the hand , and communication system CAN Bus and VxWorks controller , for properly working in the space environment.

It has a similar size, weight, and even behavior to a human hand. To reproduce the dynamic characteristic of the human hand, joints of the DLR HASy Hand are integrated with a special variable stiffness actuation system VSA, consisting of servo modules and elastic elements [ 33 ].

All actuation and electronic systems are embedded in the forearm, making it easy to be integrated in any concrete applications. During the last decades of 20th century, many multi-DOF prosthetic hands come into being, such as, Southampton prosthetic hand [ 34 ], Oxford Intelligent prosthetic hand [ 35 ], Stanford prosthetic hand [ 36 ], and NTU prosthetic hand [ 37 ].

Due to the actuation techniques and manufacturing level at that time, these prosthetic hands are generally large, heavy, and provided with very limited number of sensors. Both scope and depth of interdisciplinary fusion with relevant to mechanic, electronic, biology and control are getting strengthened in the APH development. Today, an ideal APH should possess a human-like appearance, as well as high-level dexterity. As well, it should be comfortable to wear and, more importantly, easy to control.

It consists of one power motor and 15 steering motors that is able to output 15 channels of motions. According to specific needs, the continuously variable transmission CVT device including operating motor, position sensor, power transmitting ball, operating roller and synchronizing gear sets is able to output varying torque moment and speed. Comparing with IAP hands, the EAP prosthetic hands are superior in compactness, dexterity, actuation manner and power. Tendon actuation is usually adopted in EAP hand since there is sufficient space in the palm allowing for more active DOFs and sensors.

In addition, the actuation components outside the hands are not limited by space anymore, by which motors with greater power can be used. On the other side, considering the overall volume and weight, IAP prosthetic hands usually use small-power direct current DC motors and tend to adopt a pre-tightening-free mechanism in actuation.

One big merit of the IAP prosthetic hands is their application flexibility for different amputation degree. The individual difference of patients requires less re-design or re-configuration procedures for IAP prosthetic hand. Thus, these hands are more likely to be standardized, commercialized and maintained. The HIT-I hand adopts a modular design concept that all four fingers little finger excluded are driven by embedded motors with tendons, because of which the degree of system integration is greatly improved and the size of the hand is well controlled at that time.

However, due to the quality of the tendons and digital level of that time, the hand only promises a comparably low compatibility and robustness. In the metacarpal joint TM of the thumb, an extra DOF is provided for realizing thumb opposition, thus that the relative position between thumb and four digits can be ensured in various grasping tasks. The actuation and control system is totally embedded and digitalized as much as possible. The package design of the SAH largely improves its appearance and effectively protects the electronic system and cables within the hand.

Each finger can be divided into two modulated units, 2-DOF basic joint unit and 1-DOF finger unit, within each the motors, reducers, sensors and electronic systems are totally built-in. The middle finger, ring finger and little finger are co-actuated through torsional springs and linkages. Taking advantaging of the underactuation principal [ 52 , 53 ], the inter-finger actuation of the hand is realized through elastic components, which provides the hands with an adaptive grasp to various objects.

The output force at the fingertip can reach up to 10N. Curved palm and scattered finger configuration endow the hand with more anthropomorphic characters in appearance and grasping. Meanwhile, the packaging design of the hand is also considered in the design, in connection with its actuation capacity, thermal and life design. Attributed to this extra DOF, the thumb can reach to each fingertip of the other four fingers. A total of six DC motors are embedded, while the actuation force at the fingertip can reach up to 12N.

The worm gear, instead of bevel gears, is adopted in the MCP joints, while tendon coupling mechanism is maintained in the DIP joints.

With addition to the position and force sensors, a 3-D tactile sensor [ 56 ] is designed that can measure one perpendicular force and two tangential forces applied on the fingertips. There are mainly two trends for developing DRHs, one is anthropomorphism-oriented and the other is task-oriented. For the first one, the robot hands are devised with much more human-like properties, as in its kinematics hand structure, DOFs, grasping functionality, etc.

While for the task-oriented trend, the DRHs are designed according to some specialized tasks or environments, such as the Robonaut 2 hand and Dexhand, both for extravehicular activities on the ISS. From the point of directional dexterity, we attempt to analyze these configurations on specific manipulation tasks, which can further facilitate our selection according to different application scenarios.

How to arrange the thumb on the hand is another challenge. For achieving versatile and effective grasp patterns, an efficient method needs to be proposed for appropriately positioning the thumb on the palm. The dexterous manipulations requested by the DRHs are not only promised by its anthropomorphic shape and motion, but also its high-speed processing system sensor measurement, data analysis, kinematic calculation, etc. Because of massive data calculation and interchange, selection of an appropriate control structure and platform, highly-integrated hardware and software hierarchy and suitable communication protocol are critical for DRH realizing a real-time manipulation.

Currently, based on EtherCAT, a real-time control design and validation platform [ 60 ] has been developed, on which a large variety of algorithms, such as the impedance control strategy with coordinated multi-finger manipulation and optimized grasping forces [ 61 ], can be been verified. For achieving delicate manipulations, the DRHs need to know necessary information about its outer environment obstacles and the object stiffness, size, shape, and weight to operate.

The information is generally provides by our proprioception experiences body schema sensed by our central neural system through a long-term, multi-sensory stimulation visual, tactile, force, tension, etc. The tactile sensor [ 62 ] has been now widely integrated into the fingertip to acquire such information as the contact status, position, and some other physical properties stiffness, texture, etc.

Even a primary haptic sense object shape and category can be reconstructed by using the tactile sensor and position sensors integrated on the robot hand. The main task of a prosthetic hand is to to help physically disabled people restore hand functions in living environment ADLs. General APHs should have three main features, as human-like appearance size, weight, textures, compliance, etc. Besides, state-of-the-art APHs request even more dexterous operations, given very limited choice on the actuation styles and DOF configurations.

Besides, high-precision position control such as, to nip a needle and accurate force control such as, to grasp a fragile cup are both frequently required in the daily use of APHs. How to devise a smart control strategy properly working on different conditions is another question.

For controlling the prosthetic hands, the surface myoelectric signals sEMG collected from the residual neuromuscular system stump are widely accepted. Traditional mode-switching methods established on EMG amplitude only give very limited functions, discrete robot-like finger movements, and unintuitive control feelings.

By introducing the pattern recognition method [ 64 ], a large progress has been made; however, there is still a big gap between the research and its real application [ 65 , 66 ].

Intrinsic timing-varying characters of the EMG signals, environmental change electromechanical status, temperature, moisture, sweating, etc. In this case, the control of APHs should consider other alternative peripheral nervous signals, such as ultrasonic signal [ 67 ], mechanomyography [ 68 ], near-infrared spectroscopy [ 69 ] and electrocorticography [ 70 ], to be used in the control channel, and multi-sensory means [ 71 ], such as vision [ 72 , 73 ] and tactile sense [ 74 , 75 ], to be used in the feedback channel.

This study focuses on the introduction of the development route of intrinsic actuation dexterous hands and prosthetic hands, giving a brief overview on the current artificial dexterous hands and prosthetic hands. With the progressing of science and technology, robotic hands are gradually approximating to human hands in dexterity and perception, based on which they can finish various complicated operations in the manufacturing process, activities of daily life, and exploration of unknown environment.

Robotica 17 6 — Bicchi A Hands for dexterous manipulation and robust grasping: a difficult road toward simplicity. J Prosthet Orthot 8 1 :2— J Rehabil Res Dev 48 6 — Ind Robot Int J 41 4 — Okada T Object-handling system for manual industry.

In: Proceedings of the international conference on intelligent manipulation and grasping, Genova, pp 85— Hoshino K, Kawabuchi I Pinching with finger tips in humanoid robot hand. Yamano I, Maeno T Five-fingered robot hand using ultrasonic motors and elastic elements. Int J Robot Res 18 11 — IEEE, pp — Adv Robot 9 5 — In: Proceedings. Google Scholar. Int J Robot Res 3 4 — Korea, IEEE, pp — Mech Mach Theory 45 2 —

Mechatronic Hands Prosthetic and Robotic Design by Paul H. Chappell

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Quigley and C. Salisbury and A. Ng and J. Quigley , C.

Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. Design and control of artificial robotic hand Abstract: Artificial robotic hands are designed having dexterity and functionality as close as the natural human hand produce. This paper proposes a bio-mechatronic approach for the design and control of an anthropomorphic artificial hand capable of performing basic human hand motions with fundamental gripping functionality. The dexterity of the artificial hand is exhibited by imitating the natural motion of the human fingers. Imitation is achieved by two different methods; a camera based marker recognition system to identify the human hand gestures and acquired flexion data from sensors attached to the human fingers.

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Mechatronic Hands Prosthetic and Robotic Design PDF Book

Metrics details. Restoring human hand function by mechatronic means is very challenging in robotics research. We make a concentration on a type of intrinsically-actuated robot hands, wherein the driving, transmission, and control elements are totally embedded in the hand.

Telefono , Ext. This paper presents a review on main topic regarding to anthropomorphic robotic hands developed in the last years, taking into account the more important mechatronics designs submit on the literature, and making a comparison between them. The next chapters deepen on level of anthropomorphism and dexterity in advanced actuated hands and upper limbs prostheses, as well as a brief overview on issues such as grasping, transmission mechanisms, sensory and actuator system, and also a short introduction on under-actuated robotic hands is reported. Keywords: anthropomorphism, dexterous robotic hand, humanoid robotics, underactuated robotic hand. Palabras clave: antropomorfismo, roboticahumanoide, manos roboticas y diestras, manos roboticas subactuadas.

Mechatronic Hands Prosthetic and Robotic Design by Paul H. Chappell

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