Difference Between Civil Service And Public Service In Ghana Pdf

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Civil service , the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. In most countries the term refers to employees selected and promoted on the basis of a merit and seniority system, which may include examinations. As the powers of monarchs and princes declined and as, in some countries, their sovereignty was denied them, appointment became a matter of personal choice by ministers and heads of departments. The influence senior civil servants may wield over policy and the need for them to work in close harmony with ministers induce all governments to insist on complete freedom of choice in appointments, even when, as in Great Britain, the freedom is rarely invoked. In some countries, notably the United States , senior advisers usually are replaced whenever a new administration takes office.

What Is a Civil Servant?

Civil service , the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. In most countries the term refers to employees selected and promoted on the basis of a merit and seniority system, which may include examinations. As the powers of monarchs and princes declined and as, in some countries, their sovereignty was denied them, appointment became a matter of personal choice by ministers and heads of departments.

The influence senior civil servants may wield over policy and the need for them to work in close harmony with ministers induce all governments to insist on complete freedom of choice in appointments, even when, as in Great Britain, the freedom is rarely invoked. In some countries, notably the United States , senior advisers usually are replaced whenever a new administration takes office. In Europe in the 19th century, appointment and promotion frequently depended on personal or political favour, but tenure was common in the lower and middle ranks once an appointment had been made.

Pressure for reform led to official formulations of basic qualifications for different posts; appointments and promotions boards were established within each department to prevent or obstruct overt political favouritism and nepotism; and salary scales were introduced for different grades to provide a civil servant with increments for good service while still holding the same post.

In many countries civil service commissions were set up to ensure impartiality in selection procedures and to lay down broad principles for personnel management in the civil service. Recruitment in many European countries corresponded to the national educational systems: the highest class of civil servants entered service after graduation from a university, the executive class after full completion of secondary school, the clerical class after the intermediate school examination.

The manual workers in the service were mainly recruited from persons of mature age who had left school after primary education or, in such countries as France and Germany, from military veterans. As public administration became more complex in the 20th century, specialized categories of civil servants were created to bring into the service doctors, scientists, architects, naval constructors, statisticians, lawyers, and so on. In several countries the establishment of these special classes caused some difficulties because their salary scales had to be linked with those of competing professional groups outside the service.

The distinction between foreign service and home service personnel has sometimes caused difficulty because of inadequate liaison between overseas representatives and the makers of foreign policy at home. The posts that fall under the rules of the U. Although designed to select entrants with special knowledge or skills for individual posts, this system has been criticized for failing to make the best use of the talent available to the government.

In the Senior Executive Service was created to achieve more effective promotion and deployment. All countries base appointments on some kind of competition. In some countries great emphasis is placed on formal written examinations supplemented by interviews. Candidates are expected to have completed a lengthy program of academic work for professional qualification and a period of subsequent training in a variety of public institutions under official supervision.

If successful in their interviews, candidates are recommended to the minister, who makes appointments to higher grade posts, or to the heads of department, who handle the middle and lower categories.

On the face of it, this method offers fewer guarantees of impartiality than does the formal written examination, but a civil service career is less attractive now than formerly and the civil service has to compete, usually at lower salaries, with business and the professions for the best available talent.

In Sweden a constitutional provision requires that nearly all public documents including the proceedings of authorities that make appointments be open for public inspection, thus providing a check upon corruption or favouritism. Most federal and culturally diverse countries try to ensure an equitable distribution of posts among their constituent elements. In Switzerland the federal authorities try to maintain a balance of posts not only between the cantons but also between the political parties, religions, and languages.

There was considerable pressure in Canada in the s to ensure a more equitable distribution of federal civil service posts between the English- and French-speaking populations. It is also clear that many African states are compelled to recognize regional and tribal origins in their appointments to the civil service.

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Public Sector Management and Reform

The civil service, an integral part of the executive branch of government, is a major component of the public services of Ghana, which come under supervision of the Public Services Commission. Ghana's civil service is organized along British lines and constitutes one of the most enduring legacies of British colonial rule. The constitution provides that the president, acting in accordance with the advice of the Public Services Commission, appoint a public officer to head the civil service. The civil service is Ghana's single largest employer, and its union is large and strong. It recruits graduates of Ghana's three universities and other educational institutions through a system of competitive examinations.

The Attorney General is the Principal legal advisor to the Government and the pro-forma Defendant for all civil proceedings instituted against the State. The second and third Defendants are the bodies regulating the activities of Civil Servants and Local Government Servants respectively and are not necessary parties in this matter since their interest in this matter is not in conflict with that of the Attorney General. The said letter made reference to the provisions of the Civil Service Code of Conduct issued on 1 st November, , section 12 1 b , c and e of which read as follows:. However, by virtue of the traditional role of the Civil Service to serve the Government of the day loyally, and to maintain the confidence of any future Administration, a Civil Servant may not:. The letter also advised that any Civil Servant who wished to participate in any political activity should resign from the service and warned to deal with anyone who flouted the directive.

Civil Service

Civil service , the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. In most countries the term refers to employees selected and promoted on the basis of a merit and seniority system, which may include examinations. As the powers of monarchs and princes declined and as, in some countries, their sovereignty was denied them, appointment became a matter of personal choice by ministers and heads of departments.

The terms civil service and public service seem to refer to very similar concepts but there is a significant difference between the two. Public servants are not has high ranked and provide basic services to the population and to the most needy segments of society. Civil service is a service provided by the government to all citizens. It is performed by civil servants, highly skilled individuals who achieved their positions for merit, who operate in the interest of the general public.

Conduct during Elections for Civil Servants and Ministers

Civil servants work to benefit the general public every day. Professionals in civil service positions protect, educate, provide for and assist their fellow citizens. If you are interested in a career as a civil servant, there are a multitude of jobs and roles from which you can choose.

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Public sector capacity was not as major an issue as in Ghana, but the economic Significant definitional differences exist between the three civil services.


This discussion has gone on since our attainment of nationhood. Of course, it is not posed in those terms and is raised at every change of government. On such occasions, the victorious party affirms its right to replace key bureaucrats whilst the losing party cries foul, insisting that the replaced top officers have been victimised. It is time we, as a nation, reached a consensus on the system to adopt.

The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership. A civil servant is a person employed in the public sector by a government department or agency or public sector undertakings. In the United Kingdom, for instance, only Crown national government employees are referred to as civil servants whereas employees of Local Authorities counties, cities and similar administrations are generally referred to as "local government civil service officers" who, are civil servants and public servants. A civil servant is a public servant but a public servant is not necessarily civil servant.

The test is utilized at every level of government — local, state, federal — so the exam structure will differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. Civil service employees work for a government department or agency in the public sector. Civil service does not include the military, judicial branches and elected officials. Law enforcement, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Secret Service; United States Postal Office mail handlers; the Internal Revenue Service; certain secretarial and clerical jobs; fire departments; bureau of motor vehicles; and health and human resources are all examples of civil service jobs.