File Name: introduction to logic and critical thinking by merrilee salmon 6th .zip
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Portions of those worksappear here again for classroom use and for distance education applications only by the University of Ghana, with consent of the editors and publishers.
The inspiration for those sections was planted in in graduate seminar presentations and mentoring conversations at the City University of New York. Berkeley: University of California Press, Units 8 and 9 are compiled in part with the generous cooperation of Professor Merrilee H. Salmon, University of Pittsburgh Department of History and Philosophy of Science, who donated much of the material therein about causal reasoning and arguments based on sampling.
This collaboration was originally intended to produce Chapter 21 under the authorship of Merrilee H. It appears here for classroom and distance education use only in Ghana. It was initially used with the collaboration of Serge Lang while he was alive, and appeared as Chapter 2, pp. Lauer published by Hope Publications in Ibadan.
It was reprinted a second time with permission of the original publisher and the sister of the deceased author, Mrs. The material that is included here is for classroom use and the distance education programme by the University of Ghana only.
Also contained in Units 8, 10 and 12 are examples compiled by work previously contributed by Charles L. Geshekter consents to the use of this material in the classroom and for distance education and for any educational purpose by the University of Ghana. This material appeared initially in Chapters in Vol. Unit 11 provided Dr. Amponsah an excellent opportunity to share ideas with several colleagues in the Department of Psychology.
He acknowledges adaptation of worked problems from Daniel Reisberg, a renowned cognitive psychologist, as well as Galotti whose insights informed most of the elements of that Unit. Unit 12 also contains examples composed using material first compiled for the anthology Reclaiming the Human Sciences and Humanities through African Perspectives, Eds. The quoted or extracted short passages appear here for the University of Ghana classroom and distance education use only in this module, -with the approval of the editors and publisher.
An extract also appears from Abena D. The quoted remarks by J. We who created this workbook and coursereader for you have designed it in such a way that you can master all the material required to do well in this course just by relying on all the readings, exercises, activities, practice drills, and discussion questions provided here.
We suggest textbooks where this sort of topic is treated at the end of the book, but all you really need to do is to study each unit very well, and to ask questions with your tutor or the lecture of the course. There are three types of activities through the Units 1. Short answer items 2. Thinking exercises and drills 3.
Research exercises Discussion options Suggested answers are provided at the end of the modulefor theshort answer items only. Thinking exercises, research drills, anddiscussion options may be assigned by your lecturer in yourcontinuous assessment. Any questions or counterparts of the same style may appear onexaminations. Anything which is unclear in the book would be a good placeto start asking questions that you should bring to lecture or to tutorial or toyour lecturer during office hours.
Not all written material is clear; you can help the teacher askinghonest questions. Critical thinking begins with asking honest questions. By the end of this course, you will have accomplished us mainobjectives if you are able to: 1. See when there is a need for making language clearer; 2. Use specific techniques to make the use of language clearer; 3. Appreciate various approaches to gaining knowledge ofdifferent types in different subject areas; 4.
See the difference between distinct types of argument andreasoning that logicians have categorised; 5. Identify types of problems that you meet in everyday life; 6.
Apply the respective types ofsolution to these problems recognised by cognitive psychologists. Each unit in this workbook is designed to cover a particular topic that is treated in this course over thirteen weeks of lectures. If you are attending lectures then everything in the workbook will be covered in the two hour lecture or in the one hour tutorial held each week. If it is not covered in one or both places then you should read the material and raise questions yourself about it.
Some of the topics are very straightforward and you canlearn them by yourself, provided you ask what you need to be sure you understand the exercises and activities. If you are a distance education student then you will have covered all the material dealt with in the course if you read everything thoroughly and ask your tutor online specific questions, referring to specific page numbers from the text or the exercises or both. Ask everything you want to know. Especially ask if something written in the explanations is not clear to you.
That shows you are working hard and that you are thinking and reading critically. Every person who speaks a language is already using logic. What sometimes makes it tricky to study these rules is that you follow them automatically, and it may take some extra concentration to learn the labels and categories used to talk about what you do as a speaker of a language.
Another reason why this course material may seem awkward at first is because we are using language to study language. Whenwe reflect upon our own thoughts, there is no way to separate the tools used to observe and describe what we see from the objects under investigation.
This means that at the end of the day you may find that the vocabulary used and the categories drawn are often grossly inadequate for the job we are doing. The basic unit of most thinking is a sentence.
Language gets used for different purposes. There are certain techniques we can apply to classify what people are doing and thinking when they talk or write. We will discuss how to interpret what someone is doing when they use sentences in various ways. Then we can decide if for a given purpose or use, the language that has been used or the thoughts being expressed need to be made clearer.
We can look at different ways of demanding and fulfilling the need for logical clarity—that means demanding a clearer use of language to express our thoughts. Everyone on the campus or in their homes is studying subjects or disciplines that contrast with each other—the methods used in the arts and humanities are not the same as those taught in natural sciences or social studies. You will come to see how different patters of logical relation between thoughts constitute the differences between the subject areas taught in distinct faculties.
By sketching what we call the Map of Knowledge, you will get some insight as to why theology and mathematics normativesciences are approached differently from psychology and sociology empirical sciences , and why the study of ethics has more in common with mathematics than it does with sociology. This contrast between normative and empirical studies illustrates the differences between reasoning called deductive and reasoning called inductive.
In part three, units , we will look more directly at the fundamental differences between deductive and inductive reasoning, but we will always keep it very practical. You will learn basic patterns of logical reasoning only insofar as you need to apply them as tools to identifyelementary flaws in the thinking that may lead us to hold on to a particular belief or point of view for the wrong reasons.
In part four, units ,you will be introduced to strategies for everyday problem solving; these will help you to maintain your own personal and professional discretion in the face of peer pressure and mob mentality, when confronting the challenges and moral dilemmas we all face in our everyday lives both within the university and beyond. You need to be spending time practicing the skills and doing the homework exercises on your own. Never be afraid or hesitant to challenge anythingthat you read here—or anywhere.
It is quite likely that if you are not satisfied by a given explanation, or if a contrast is being drawn that seems to you as not very reliable or accurate or adequate, then there is a good chance that your concerns are well founded on philosophical grounds or on experiences you have had of which others are ignorant. That is what critical thinking is all about. In a more advanced course in philosophy or in another subject area in your future studies, either in a formal course or on your own, you will be free and encouraged to explore these concerns and see whether they are well founded or not.
But the time to start asking questions and raising objections and posing problems is now. That tendency to raise questions and point out the need for elaboration or further explanation is the mark of a true scholar and intellectual, and that is what your role should be in civic society wherever you work and in whatever you do, to contribute to a strong and vibrant nation. It can be abused to deprive people of their entitlements; it can be used as a verbal stick of oppression to bully and silence people.
For instance people use language to create an effect: to impress an audience, the Master of Ceremonies might speak of a newly wedded couple in beautiful verse, to intentionally exaggerate their virtues; to be overly concerned about the truth of what he is saying misses the point of why he is talking in the first place.
Or someone might be engaged in playing a fictitious character in a play, or reciting poetic verse or telling a vivid story, or giving someone consolation, or spiritual inspiration, or just to express strong feelings. In all these situations, applying logical analysis would at best give the impression that you are trying to make a joke or to express disdain for the proceedings or the speaker. Or it might seem that you are grossly at fault for missing the intentions of the speaker or of the text.
So our first job in learning to use logical tools is to recognize those statements to which they apply. This requires recognizing different forms of linguistic expression. This unit will cover the following topics Section 1 Distinguishing types of sentence-shaped thought Section 2 Recognising sentence thought fragmentsand expressions of feeling Section 3 Identifying different types of declarative statement Objectives for treating thought as an object of study Upon completion of this unit you should be able to 1.
Observe sentence fragments and emotive expressions—components of thought that are incomplete sentences 3. Identify different types of declarative statement: i factual judgments, ii value judgments moral and non-moral , iii definitions; 4. A question in itself cannot be true or false; a question may be successful or not, depending upon whether or not it attracts a correct answer.
Imperatives are also called directives or commands, and they are requeststo get someone to do something. Just like a question, a command or directive will be successful if the result is that the desired effect is brought about. Sometimes a command can be made in a polite way, as if it were a question demanding information. So we have to be aware that a sentence may have an explicit interpretation and an implicit meaning at the same time. So it would be correct to categorize this question as a directive or a request an imperative.
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An argument from authority argumentum ab auctoritate , also called an appeal to authority , or argumentum ad verecundiam , is a form of argument in which the opinion of an authority on a topic is used as evidence to support an argument. Historically, opinion on the appeal to authority has been divided: it is listed as a non-fallacious argument as often as a fallacious argument in various sources,  as some hold that it can be a strong or at least valid defeasible  argument     and others that it is weak or an outright fallacy. If all parties agree on the reliability of an authority in the given context it forms a valid inductive argument. Scientific knowledge is best established by evidence and experiment rather than argued through authority    as authority has no place in science. One of the great commandments of science is, "Mistrust arguments from authority. Too many such arguments have proved too painfully wrong. Authorities must prove their contentions like everybody else.
Critical Thinking 6th Edition. Salmon M H INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND CRITICAL. Introduction To Logic And. Critical Thinking By Merrilee H.
Book:Merrilee H. Salmon/Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
List of ebooks and manuels about Salmon introduction to logic and critical thinking torrent. Brian Hood. Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking 6th. Salmon: Chapter 4 Ex.
Book:Merrilee H. Salmon/Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking
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Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking. Merrilee H. The text begins with an introduction to arguments.
Everything from a poleaxe to a partisan. Offering information to the Superintendent could be a tricky business. The only partisans known to the Superintendent were his enemies on the Watch Committee. It means the Ornums have been entitled to bear arms for a very long time. In the same way the Ornums were entitled to bear arms in the old days.
Merrilee H. Introduction to Arguments I. Introduction II.
Танкадо, задыхаясь и не в силах произнести ни звука, в последней отчаянной надежде посмотрел на тучного господина. Пожилой человек вдруг поднялся и куда-то побежал, видимо, вызвать скорую.