File Name: structuralism and functionalism in psychology .zip
- 1.4: Early Psychology - Structuralism and Functionalism
- Difference between structuralism and functionalism
When psychology was first established as a science separate from philosophy, the debate over how to explain human behavior and analyze the mind began. The first two psychological theories to emerge during this time were structuralism and functionalism. While neither theory exists today, both made important contributions to the development of modern psychology. Structuralism emerged as the first school of thought and some of the ideas associated with the structuralist school were advocated by the founder of the first experimental psychology lab , Wilhelm Wundt.
Functionalism definition is - a late 19th century to early 20th century American school of psychology concerned especially with how the mind functions to adapt the individual to the environment. Functionalism refers to a school of thought within psychology that examines mental processes and how they relate to human behavior. Psychology emerged as a separate discipline and subject, distinct in its structure and form from subjects like philosophy and biology in the late s. It is debated who deserves the credit for finding this field of psychology, but it is widely accepted that Wundt created the foundation on which Titchener expanded. Functionalism, an approach to the formation of international organizations that advocates international cooperation on scientific, humanitarian, social, and economic issues.. Functional cooperation in the United Nations.
Functionalism in the philosophy of mind is the doctrine that what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way it functions, or the role it plays, in the system of which it is a part. The following sections will trace the intellectual antecedents of contemporary functionalism, sketch the different types of functionalist theories, and discuss the most serious objections to them. Functionalism is the doctrine that what makes something a thought, desire, pain or any other type of mental state depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function, or the role it plays, in the cognitive system of which it is a part. More precisely, functionalist theories take the identity of a mental state to be determined by its causal relations to sensory stimulations, other mental states, and behavior. For an avowedly simplistic example, a functionalist theory might characterize pain as a state that tends to be caused by bodily injury, to produce the belief that something is wrong with the body and the desire to be out of that state, to produce anxiety, and, in the absence of any stronger, conflicting desires, to cause wincing or moaning. According to this theory, all and only creatures with internal states that meet these conditions, or play these roles, are capable of being in pain. Suppose that, in humans, there is some distinctive kind of neural activity C-fiber stimulation, for example that meets these conditions.
Structuralism , in psychology , a systematic movement founded in Germany by Wilhelm Wundt and mainly identified with Edward B. Structuralism sought to analyze the adult mind defined as the sum total of experience from birth to the present in terms of the simplest definable components and then to find the way in which these components fit together in complex forms. The major tool of structuralist psychology was introspection a careful set of observations made under controlled conditions by trained observers using a stringently defined descriptive vocabulary. Titchener held that an experience should be evaluated as a fact, as it exists without analyzing the significance or value of that experience. In his major treatise , A Textbook of Psychology —10 , he stated that the only elements necessary to describe the conscious experience are sensation and affection feeling.
1.4: Early Psychology - Structuralism and Functionalism
Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century. Two men, working in the 19th century, are generally credited as being the founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline that was distinct from philosophy. Their names were Wilhelm Wundt and William James. Attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess. Focuses on the role of our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories and our early childhood experiences in determining behavior. Based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself.
Structuralism and functionalism are two approaches to psychology. They are also the two earliest psychological theories that have sought to explain human behavior in different ways and to approach the study of psychology from different perspectives. Structuralism appeared first and functionalism was a reaction to this theory. Structuralism could be considered as the first formal theory in psychology that separated it from biology and philosophy into its own discipline. The structural psychology was first described by Tichener, a student of Wilhelm Wundt.
Difference between structuralism and functionalism
Functional psychology or functionalism refers to a psychological school of thought that was a direct outgrowth of Darwinian thinking which focuses attention on the utility and purpose of behavior that has been modified over years of human existence. Thorndike , best known for his experiments with trial-and-error learning, came to be known as the leader of the loosely defined movement. This movement arose in the U. Functionalism denies the principle of introspection, which tends to investigate the inner workings of human thinking rather than understanding the biological processes of the human consciousness. While functionalism eventually became its own formal school, it built on structuralism's concern for the anatomy of the mind and led to greater concern over the functions of the mind and later to the psychological approach of behaviorism. Functionalism  was a philosophy opposing the prevailing structuralism of psychology of the late 19th century.
Psychology is a relatively young science with its experimental roots in the 19th century, compared, for example, to human physiology, which dates much earlier. As mentioned, anyone interested in exploring issues related to the mind generally did so in a philosophical context prior to the 19th century. Two men, working in the 19th century, are generally credited as being the founders of psychology as a science and academic discipline that was distinct from philosophy. Their names were Wilhelm Wundt and William James.
Применив силу, говорил этот голос, ты столкнешься с сопротивлением. Но заставь противника думать так, как выгодно тебе, и у тебя вместо врага появится союзник. - Сьюзан, - услышал он собственный голос, - Стратмор - убийца. Ты в опасности. Казалось, она его не слышала.
Early Psychology—Structuralism and Functionalism
Фонтейн, видимо, размышлял. Сьюзан попробовала что-то сказать, но Джабба ее перебил: - Чего вы ждете, директор. Позвоните Танкадо. Скажите, что вы согласны на его условия. Нам нужен этот шифр-убийца, или все здесь провалится сквозь землю. Все стояли не шелохнувшись.
Стратмор и Сьюзан отволокли его туда через шифровалку и связали ему руки и ноги толстым кабелем от одного из лазерных принтеров. Сьюзан до сих пор была ошеломлена ловкими действиями коммандера. Он разыграл звонок по телефону. И в результате одолел Хейла, освободил Сьюзан и выиграл время для переделки Цифровой крепости. Сьюзан с опаской посмотрела на связанного шифровальщика. Стратмор сидел на диване, небрежно положив берет-ту на колени.
- Если мы вызовем помощь, шифровалка превратится в цирк. - Так что же вы предлагаете? - спросила Сьюзан. Она хотела только одного - поскорее уйти. Стратмор на минуту задумался. - Не спрашивай меня, как это случилось, - сказал он, уставившись в закрытый люк. - Но у меня такое впечатление, что мы совершенно случайно обнаружили и нейтрализовали Северную Дакоту.
Перед сердечным приступом мистер Танкадо не почувствовал ничего, кроме легкого укола.
Третья попытка провалилась. Он помнил, что сказал Клушар: немец нанял девушку на весь уик-энд. Беккер вышел из телефонной будки на перекрестке калле Саладо и авениды Асунсьон. Несмотря на интенсивное движение, воздух был наполнен сладким ароматом севильских апельсиновых деревьев. Спустились сумерки - самое романтическое время суток.