File Name: discuss agamemnon and oedipus as tragic heroes .zip
The tragedies of Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles followed strict structure and form, which was designed to effectively communicate not only the story of the play, but also the underlying moral to the audience. A typical ancient Greek tragedy consists of five essential sections, some of which are repeated as necessary to accommodate the plot. They are:. For example, in the case of Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, there are six episodes, allowing for significant plot development. In place of the fifth stasimon, Sophocles inserted a Kommos after episode five, which is a lyrical exchange between actors and the chorus to describe how Oedipus has blinded himself.
Tragic hero agamemnon
His famous connection between "pity and fear" and "catharsis" developed into one of Western philosophy's greatest questions: why is it that people are drawn to watching tragic heroes suffer horrible fates? Aristotle's ideas revolve around three crucial effects: First, the audience develops an emotional attachment to the tragic hero; second, the audience fears what may befall the hero; and finally after misfortune strikes the audience pities the suffering hero. Through these attachments the individual members of the audience go through a catharsis, a term which Aristotle borrowed from the medical writers of his day, which means a "refining" -- the viewer of a tragedy refines his or her sense of difficult ethical issues through a vicarious experious of such thorny problems. Clearly, for Aristotle's theory to work, the tragic hero must be a complex and well-constructed character, as in Sophocles' Oedipus the King. As a tragic hero, Oedipus elicits the three needed responses from the audience far better than most; indeed, Aristotle and subsequent critics have labeled Oedipus the ideal tragic hero.
A tragic hero is the protagonist of a tragedy. In his Poetics , Aristotle records the descriptions of the tragic hero to the playwright and strictly defines the place that the tragic hero must play and the kind of man he must be. Aristotle based his observations on previous dramas. He establishes the concept that pity is an emotion that must be elicited when, through his actions, the character receives undeserved misfortune, while the emotion of fear must be felt by the audience when they contemplate that such misfortune could possibly befall themselves in similar situations. Aristotle explains such change of fortune "should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. An example of a mistake made by a tragic hero can be found in Sophocles ' Oedipus Rex.
He determines that tragedy, like all poetry, is a kind of imitation mimesis , but adds that it has a serious purpose and uses direct action rather than narrative to achieve its ends. The aim of tragedy, Aristotle writes, is to bring about a "catharsis" of the spectators — to arouse in them sensations of pity and fear, and to purge them of these emotions so that they leave the theater feeling cleansed and uplifted, with a heightened understanding of the ways of gods and men. This catharsis is brought about by witnessing some disastrous and moving change in the fortunes of the drama's protagonist Aristotle recognized that the change might not be disastrous, but felt this was the kind shown in the best tragedies — Oedipus at Colonus, for example, was considered a tragedy by the Greeks but does not have an unhappy ending. According to Aristotle, tragedy has six main elements: plot, character, diction, thought, spectacle scenic effect , and song music , of which the first two are primary. Most of the Poetics is devoted to analysis of the scope and proper use of these elements, with illustrative examples selected from many tragic dramas, especially those of Sophocles, although Aeschylus, Euripides, and some playwrights whose works no longer survive are also cited.
Agamemnon, The Choephori, and The Eumenides
The dialogue as well as the language of the chorus also emphasizes the tragic message about the tragic life of the ill-fated Oedipus. Oedipus Rex is an ancient Greek tragedy which is so typical of the classical tragedies that Aristotle took it as an example to define and illustrate the qualities of a tragedy. Aristotle's definition is a descriptive one and not prescriptive ; the definition of tragedy has been modified because many great tragedies have been written since without being confined to the Aristotelian features. However, it is feasible to first see this tragedy in terms of Aristotle's definition. Aristotle defined tragedy in terms of its plot, character and action. The plot of a tragedy must consist of one, great and complete action.
The idea of Greek tragedy stems from Aristotle's definition of a tragic hero. In Aristotle's definition, the tragic hero must be a person of high standing so their fall from glory will be all the more horrible. The hero also must be a man like ourselves in elemental feelings and emotions. Also, the hero must have a tragic flaw, a characteristic that causes him to bring some disaster upon himself and fall to the lowest depths. In Agamemnon, the classic Greek drama, Aeschylus demonstrates the concept of the tragic flaw through the character of Agamemnon and how he is a common man with similar feelings and beliefs. He loves his family and devotes himself to his country and religion.
Oedipus is the tragically fated lead character of Oedipus the King by the Greek playwright Sophocles. Abandoned as a baby by his parents King Laius and Queen Jocasta of Thebes, Oedipus is fated to kill his father and marry his mother. Despite his terrible fate, Oedipus is often an admirable character. His character is complex and well-formed, allowing us to sympathize and feel pity for him. He is a moral character who seeks to enforce justice for the murder of Laius. Even when Oedipus discovers the horrifying truth that he is, in fact, the perpetrator of the crime, he does not deny it or attempt to hide the truth. Therefore, he blinds himself, exiled himself from Thebes and lives out the rest of his life as a blind beggar.
Hamartia as it pertains to dramatic literature was first used by Aristotle in his Poetics. In tragedy , hamartia is commonly understood to refer to the protagonist's error or tragic flaw that leads to a chain of plot actions culminating in a reversal from felicity to disaster. What qualifies as the error or flaw can include an error resulting from ignorance, an error of judgement, a flaw in character, or a wrongdoing. The spectrum of meanings has invited debate among critics and scholars and different interpretations among dramatists. Hamartia is first described in the subject of literary criticism by Aristotle in his Poetics.
- Элементы, ответственные… У Дэвида Беккера, находившегося в трех тысячах миль от комнаты оперативного управления, загорелись .
Сьюзан допивала уже третью чашку чая, когда это наконец произошло: компьютер пискнул. Пульс ее участился. На мониторе появилось символическое изображение конверта - это значило, что пришло сообщение по электронной почте.
Хейл хорошо знал, что этот лифт делает только одну остановку - на Подземном шоссе, недоступном для простых смертных лабиринте туннелей, по которым скрытно перемешается высокое начальство агентства. Он не имел ни малейшего желания затеряться в подвальных коридорах АНБ с сопротивляющейся изо всех сил заложницей. Это смертельная ловушка. Если даже он выберется на улицу, у него нет оружия. Как он заставит Сьюзан пройти вместе с ним к автомобильной стоянке.
Местная валюта, - безучастно сказал пилот. - Я понимаю. - Беккер запнулся.
- С руки Танкадо исчезло кольцо. - Да. К счастью, Дэвид это обнаружил.
Знать ничего не знаю. - Не знаю, о ком вы говорите, - поправил его Беккер, подзывая проходившую мимо официантку. Он купил две бутылки пива и протянул одну Двухцветному. Панк изумленно взглянул на бутылку, потом отпил изрядный глоток и тупо уставился на Беккера. - Чего вы от меня хотите, мистер.