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Towards a Christian Literary Theory pp Cite as. The interdisciplinary study of religion and literature, begun in the twentieth century by Christian critics such as T.
- The Question of Religion in T. S. Eliot’s Poetry: “Ash-Wednesday” as a Case Study
- Christian Literary Theory
- T. S. Eliot
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Modernist Non-fictional Narrat Modernism and Muddle: Religious I Around the year , as noted by Ronald Schuchard, T. Eliot moved beyond the opposition of classicism and romanticism, replacing it with a juxtaposition of orthodoxy and modernism. Eliot classicism was essentially an antidote to modernism.
The Question of Religion in T. S. Eliot’s Poetry: “Ash-Wednesday” as a Case Study
Born in St. Louis , Missouri, to a prominent Boston Brahmin family, he moved to England in at the age of 25 and went on to settle, work and marry there. He became a British subject in at the age of 39, subsequently renouncing his American citizenship. Eliot first attracted widespread attention for his poem " The Love Song of J.
Alfred Prufrock " in , which was received as a modernist masterpiece. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in , "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry". Eliot's paternal grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot , had moved to St. Louis , Missouri,   to establish a Unitarian Christian church there.
His mother, Charlotte Champe Stearns — , wrote poetry and was a social worker, a new profession in the early 20th century. Eliot was the last of six surviving children. Known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Stearns. Eliot's childhood infatuation with literature can be ascribed to several factors. First, he had to overcome physical limitations as a child. Struggling from a congenital double inguinal hernia , he could not participate in many physical activities and thus was prevented from socialising with his peers.
As he was often isolated, his love for literature developed. Once he learned to read, the young boy immediately became obsessed with books, favouring tales of savage life, the Wild West, or Mark Twain 's thrill-seeking Tom Sawyer.
Louis affected me more deeply than any other environment has ever done. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the big river , which is incommunicable to those people who have not. I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London. He began to write poetry when he was 14 under the influence of Edward Fitzgerald 's translation of the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. He said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them.
The last mentioned story significantly reflects his exploration of the Igorot Village while visiting the World's Fair of St. Eliot lived in St. Louis, Missouri for the first 16 years of his life at the house on Locust St. After going away to school in , he only returned to St. Louis for vacations and visits. Despite moving away from the city, Eliot wrote to a friend that the "Missouri and the Mississippi have made a deeper impression on me than any other part of the world.
He studied at Harvard College from to , earning a Bachelor of Arts in an elective program similar to comparative literature in and a Master of Arts in English literature the following year. After working as a philosophy assistant at Harvard from to , Eliot moved to Paris where, from to , he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne. He first visited Marburg , Germany, where he planned to take a summer programme, but when the First World War broke out he went to Oxford instead. At the time so many American students attended Merton that the Junior Common Room proposed a motion "that this society abhors the Americanization of Oxford".
It was defeated by two votes after Eliot reminded the students how much they owed American culture. Eliot wrote to Conrad Aiken on New Year's Eve "I hate university towns and university people, who are the same everywhere, with pregnant wives, sprawling children, many books and hideous pictures on the walls Oxford is very pretty, but I don't like to be dead.
This city had a monumental and life-altering effect on Eliot for several reasons, the most significant of which was his introduction to the influential American literary figure Ezra Pound. A connection through Aiken resulted in an arranged meeting and on 22 September , Eliot paid a visit to Pound's flat. Pound instantly deemed Eliot "worth watching" and was crucial to Eliot's beginning career as a poet, as he is credited with promoting Eliot through social events and literary gatherings.
Thus, according to biographer John Worthen, during his time in England Eliot "was seeing as little of Oxford as possible". He was instead spending long periods of time in London, in the company of Ezra Pound and "some of the modern artists whom the war has so far spared It was Pound who helped most, introducing him everywhere. In he taught English at Birkbeck, University of London. By , he had completed a doctoral dissertation for Harvard on "Knowledge and Experience in the Philosophy of F.
Bradley ", but he failed to return for the viva voce exam. Before leaving the US, Eliot had told Emily Hale that he was in love with her; he exchanged letters with her from Oxford during and but they did not meet again until They were married at Hampstead Register Office on 26 June After a short visit alone to his family in the United States, Eliot returned to London and took several teaching jobs, such as lecturing at Birkbeck College , University of London.
The philosopher Bertrand Russell took an interest in Vivienne while the newlyweds stayed in his flat. Some scholars have suggested that she and Russell had an affair, but the allegations were never confirmed. The marriage was markedly unhappy, in part because of Vivienne's health problems. In a letter addressed to Ezra Pound, she covers an extensive list of her symptoms, which included a habitually high temperature, fatigue , insomnia , migraines , and colitis. The couple formally separated in and in Vivienne's brother, Maurice, had her committed to a mental hospital, against her will, where she remained until her death of heart disease in In a private paper written in his sixties, Eliot confessed: "I came to persuade myself that I was in love with Vivienne simply because I wanted to burn my boats and commit myself to staying in England.
And she persuaded herself also under the influence of [Ezra] Pound that she would save the poet by keeping him in England. To her, the marriage brought no happiness. To me, it brought the state of mind out of which came The Waste Land. After leaving Merton, Eliot worked as a schoolteacher, most notably at Highgate School , a private school in London, where he taught French and Latin—his students included the young John Betjeman.
To earn extra money, he wrote book reviews and lectured at evening extension courses at the University College London, and Oxford.
In , he took a position at Lloyds Bank in London, working on foreign accounts. Eliot said he found Joyce arrogant—Joyce doubted Eliot's ability as a poet at the time—but the two soon became friends, with Eliot visiting Joyce whenever he was in Paris. Charles Whibley recommended T. Eliot to Geoffrey Faber. Auden , Stephen Spender , and Ted Hughes. On 29 June , Eliot converted to Anglicanism from Unitarianism , and in November that year he took British citizenship.
One of Eliot's biographers, Peter Ackroyd , commented that "the purposes of [Eliot's conversion] were two-fold. One: the Church of England offered Eliot some hope for himself, and I think Eliot needed some resting place. But secondly, it attached Eliot to the English community and English culture.
By , Eliot had been contemplating a separation from his wife for some time. When Harvard offered him the Charles Eliot Norton professorship for the — academic year, he accepted and left Vivienne in England. Upon his return, he arranged for a formal separation from her, avoiding all but one meeting with her between his leaving for America in and her death in Vivienne was committed to the Northumberland House mental hospital in Woodberry Down, Manor House, London , in , and remained there until she died.
Although Eliot was still legally her husband, he never visited her. Eliot later destroyed Hale's letters to him, but Hale donated Eliot's to Princeton University Library where they were sealed until From to Eliot's public companion was Mary Trevelyan of London University, who wanted to marry him and left a detailed memoir.
When Eliot and Hayward separated their household in , Hayward retained his collection of Eliot's papers, which he bequeathed to King's College, Cambridge , in In contrast to his first marriage, Eliot knew Fletcher well, as she had been his secretary at Faber and Faber since August They kept their wedding secret; the ceremony was held in St.
Eliot had no children with either of his wives. In the early s, by then in failing health, Eliot worked as an editor for the Wesleyan University Press , seeking new poets in Europe for publication.
After Eliot's death, Valerie dedicated her time to preserving his legacy, by editing and annotating The Letters of T. Eliot and a facsimile of the draft of The Waste Land. Eliot died of emphysema at his home in Kensington in London, on 4 January ,  and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium.
In my end is my beginning. In , on the second anniversary of his death, Eliot was commemorated by the placement of a large stone in the floor of Poets' Corner in London's Westminster Abbey. The apartment block where he died, No. For a poet of his stature, Eliot produced a relatively small number of poems. He was aware of this even early in his career. He wrote to J. Woods, one of his former Harvard professors, "My reputation in London is built upon one small volume of verse, and is kept up by printing two or three more poems in a year.
The only thing that matters is that these should be perfect in their kind, so that each should be an event. Typically, Eliot first published his poems individually in periodicals or in small books or pamphlets and then collected them in books.
His first collection was Prufrock and Other Observations These had the same poems in a different order except that "Ode" in the British edition was replaced with "Hysteria" in the American edition. From then on, he updated this work as Collected Poems. Exceptions are Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats , a collection of light verse; Poems Written in Early Youth , posthumously published in and consisting mainly of poems published between and in The Harvard Advocate , and Inventions of the March Hare: Poems — , material Eliot never intended to have published, which appeared posthumously in During an interview in , Eliot said of his nationality and its role in his work: "I'd say that my poetry has obviously more in common with my distinguished contemporaries in America than with anything written in my generation in England.
That I'm sure of. It wouldn't be what it is, and I imagine it wouldn't be so good; putting it as modestly as I can, it wouldn't be what it is if I'd been born in England, and it wouldn't be what it is if I'd stayed in America.
It's a combination of things. But in its sources, in its emotional springs, it comes from America.
Christian Literary Theory
Born in St. Louis , Missouri, to a prominent Boston Brahmin family, he moved to England in at the age of 25 and went on to settle, work and marry there. He became a British subject in at the age of 39, subsequently renouncing his American citizenship. Eliot first attracted widespread attention for his poem " The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock " in , which was received as a modernist masterpiece. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in , "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry".
Please note that ebooks are subject to tax and the final price may vary depending on your country of residence. In this ambitious book, Michael D. Eliot — engaged their religious faith in poetry, with a view to asking why they chose that literary form in the first place. What did they believe poetry could say or do that other kinds of language or expression could not? And how might poetry itself operate as a unique mode of believing? These deep questions meet at the crossroads of poetics and metaphysics, and the writers considered here offer different answers.
'Religion and Literature'. T. S. Eliot, Selected Essays (3rd edn., London, ) though a scientific, or historical, or theological, or philosophic work which is.
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Eliot indisputably was, and remains, in the first rank of poets of any era and any culture. His journal, The Criterion , despite its short lifespan, remains the standard of high modernism. In particular, T.
T. S. Eliot
Demant and published in the volume Faith That Illuminates. Subsequently, in , Eliot himself collected the essay in his Essays Ancient and Modern, a somewhat revised version of his own earlier collection, For Lancelot Andrewes: Essays on Style and Order, from In the immediate context of his remarks, Eliot specifically identifies these individuals as Christians, given the further fact that, in his view, he was as much fighting a holding action for asserting the Christian basis to European culture as attempting to resolve this particular critical conundrum. Now Eliot is ready to get down to critical issues raised by the dual topics of religion and literature. Eliot does not blame or condemn the individual writer and his or her values and beliefs either, such as they are. Modern literature, Eliot concludes, is neither amoral nor immoral, although the implication is that it would be more suitable if it were because then those attitudes would be out in the open.
Халохот быстро осмотрел стодвадцатиметровую башню и сразу же решил, что прятаться здесь просто смешно. Наверняка Беккер не настолько глуп. Единственная спиральная лестница упиралась в каменную камеру квадратной формы, в стенах были проделаны узкие прорези для обозрения, но, разумеется, никакого выхода он не .
Это и мне сразу пришло в голову. Но послушай: канадец сказал, что буквы не складывались во что-то вразумительное. Японские иероглифы не спутаешь с латиницей. Он сказал, что выгравированные буквы выглядят так, будто кошка прошлась по клавишам пишущей машинки. - Коммандер, не думаете же вы… - Сьюзан расхохоталась.
Вызовите службу безопасности. И давайте выбираться отсюда. Стратмор поднял руку, давая понять, что ему нужно подумать. Сьюзан опасливо перевела взгляд в сторону люка. Его не было видно за корпусом ТРАНСТЕКСТА, но красноватое сияние отражалось от черного кафеля подобно огню, отражающемуся ото льда.
Труп сдвинулся еще чуть-чуть. Тогда Стратмор напрягся и рванул тело изо всех сил. Внезапно его швырнуло назад, и он больно ударился спиной о кожух генератора. Пытаясь подняться на ноги, Стратмор в ужасе смотрел на предмет, зажатый в его пальцах: это была рука Чатрукьяна, обломившаяся в локтевом суставе. Наверху Сьюзан ждала возвращения коммандера, сидя на диване в Третьем узле словно парализованная.
Беккер заметил металлический блеск в тот самый миг, когда убийца поднимал пистолет, и, как спринтер, срывающийся с места при звуке стартового выстрела, рванулся. Насмерть перепуганный священник упал, чаша взлетела вверх, и красное вино разлилось по белому мрамору пола. Монахи и служки у алтаря бросились врассыпную, а Беккер тем временем перемахнул через ограждение. Глушитель кашлянул, Беккер плашмя упал на пол. Пуля ударилась о мрамор совсем рядом, и в следующее мгновение он уже летел вниз по гранитным ступеням к узкому проходу, выходя из которого священнослужители поднимались на алтарь как бы по милости Божьей.
Когда? - Он заржал. - Она давно уехала. Отправилась в аэропорт несколько часов. Самое место, где толкнуть колечко: богатые туристы и все такое прочее. Как только получит денежки, так и улетит.
Тело его сначала оказалось в воздухе, а потом - на жестком полу. Из тени на авенида дель Сид появилась фигура человека. Поправив очки в железной оправе, человек посмотрел вслед удаляющемуся автобусу.