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- Health Tips
- What’s the Difference Between Processed and Ultra-Processed Food?
- Similarities and Differences of Health and Junk Food
- Similarities and Differences of Health and Junk Food
Food is a basic necessity for all organism on Earth. In fact, food is consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism, and it also provides energy, maintain life or stimulate growth.
This category of food is making headlines as recent research connects it with major health risks. Heating, pasteurizing, canning, and drying are all considered forms of processing. Some definitions even include refrigeration in the mix. But the parameters around ultra-processed foods are less clear than those around processed food in general. The idea of ultra-processed foods was first introduced by a team of Brazilian nutrition researchers in a study that linked the foods with cancer.
Cultural deter- whom they ate. The main food classification scheme that emerged from the data analysis was the dichotomization of minants, such as the values and symbolic meanings people foods into two groups: "healthy foods" and "junk foods". The attach to food, are key components of the model that have study participants agreed on the core foods and common traditionally received little attention from nutrition re- characteristics of foods in each group. They associated con- searchers.
Social anthropologists have provided descriptions sumption ofjunk food with, among other things, weight gain, of the meanings attributed to food in various cultures and pleasure, friends, independence, and guilt, while consumption the relationship of those meanings to social forces 5 , but of healthy food was associated with weight loss, parents, and no reported studies have examined the shared cultural being at home.
Through these associations, the food-meaning knowledge currently shaping adolescent women's eating system relates to issues of adolescent development such as the patterns. Comprehension of this set of influences on young maturation of relationships with family and friends, and societal women's food practices and concerns should aid nutrition pressures on women to be thin. Appreciation of meanings educators in the development of intervention programs given to different foods within adolescent women's culture and aimed at this group.
The major food classification scheme that emerged from interviews with adolescent women in Toronto will be The eating habits of adolescent women is a topic of concern described in this paper. Diet surveys consistently show young women in North America and Britain to have low intakes of energy and some micronutrients, most notably iron and METHODS calcium, as well as excess intakes of fat and sugar. Unfortu- nately, while recent nutrition education efforts have had Qualitative methods were chosen for the study, as this some success in increasing young women's nutrition knowl- approach is well suited to the examination of cultural edge, significant changes in their eating behaviors have been meaning systems Developed primarily in social sci- ences such as anthropology and sociology, qualitative meth- odology generally involves assumptions about human Address for correspondence: Gwen Chapman.
June interaction with others, people who share the same envi- No participants were known to be pregnant; all were in ronment tend to develop shared meanings. A goal of quali- good health and fluent in English. Self-reported heights and tative research is thus to learn about those meanings through weights were obtained from all core participants and nine extensive interaction with people in their normal, everyday peripheral participants.
Such interactions may be unstructured, as in studies group ranged from When compared where participant observation is the primary mode of data with baseline data from NHANESI 10 , three participants collection.
The other common data collection method is that had a BMI above the 85th percentile, the cutoff frequently of unstructured or semi-structured interviewing. In either used to indicate obesity. No participants were below the case, the research is directed towards the exploration of the 15th percentile, suggesting that none were seriously under- phenomena under study from the perspective of the sub- weight.
Data collection. The primary method of data collection Sam. Ninety-three young women were re- was in-depth individual interviews. All were conducted by cruited for the study through schools and community groups the first author, who had received prior training in inter- in Metropolitan Toronto. The research design defined three viewing techniques. The use of concerns about dieting and weight control. Techniques to the three different groups allowed for identification of issues minimize the possibility of leading subjects' thoughts in- important to individual young women through in-depth cluded starting each of these interviews with broad, open- interviews, and elaboration of those concerns with a wider ended questions that allowed the subjects to identifY issues variety of young women in the discussion groups.
As is of concern to them. The interviewer let the participants typical of qualitative research, purposive sampling tech- guide the conversation as much as possible, then followed niques were used to recruit subjects with specific charac- up on the topics they raised. Guarding against the inadver- teristics 7,9. For example, specific public schools were tent use of leading questions also involved the use of selected to ensure that the subjects represented a mix of individualized guides for subsequent interviews with core socioeconomic settings.
Each guide was prepared following the initial In terms of subject characteristics, the core participants analysis of that participant's previous interviews and, there- formed the most homogeneous group. All were Caucasians, fore, was based on issues of concern to her, not issues 14 to 16 years of age. Four were second generation Cana- predefined by the researchers. Interviews ranged from 25 to dians; families of the others had been in North America for 60 minutes in length. All were tape-recorded, and verbatim several generations.
Seven lived in a traditional nuclear transcripts were prepared. Four came from households where both Each of the eleven groups was made up of four to eight parents had university degrees and professional or manag- young women who were acquainted with each other. Each erial jobs; five had parents with a minimum of a high school discussion lasted 30 to 45 minutes.
Participants were again diploma and white collar jobs; five came from working class allowed to direct much of the conversation, but the discus- homes where the parents had six to eleven years of school- sions were focused on specific issues that had emerged from ing; and two came from single-parent households supported the individual interviews.
All discussions were tape-re- by social assistance. The peripheral participants were 14 to 17 years old. Three Within the interviews and discussions, techniques adapted had been born outside Canada.
The seven second-genera- from Spradley 6 were used to elicit the participants' tion Canadians were of Italian, Portuguese, and Polish food-related meaning systems.
One strategy was to examine heritage. Families of the remaining four participants had the data for ways in which participants spontaneously cate- been in Canada for several generations. Two of the peri- gorized foods and to ask participants in later interviews pheral participants were from professional or managerial direct questions about those categories.
They were asked households, three were from white collar homes, eight were for examples of foods that should be included in each from working class families, and one lived with her unem- category and for characteristics of these foods. They were ployed mother. The task involved the use ofl00 three-by-four inch participants, as well as Caucasians. The foods repre- core participants were given copies of the summary reports sented a variety offood groups.
Participants who completed written about them and asked to comment. Further auditing the task were given 25 to 30 cards from the top of the of the emerging themes occurred when specific issues were shuffied deck and asked to sort the cards into groups, using presented in the group discussions for comments and feed- whatever and however many groups they wished, as long back.
The continual checking of developing ideas with the as there were at least two different groups. After the sorting participants and constant cross-checking between original was completed, each group was named.
Each participant transcripts, memos, and reports adds to the credibility of the repeated the task until she could not think of any new interpretation. As well, throughout the project, numerous groupings. All interviewing, transcribing, coding, and writing was con- Data analysis and interpretation. Analysis of the data ducted by the primary author, who was therefore well was consistent with a grounded theory approach 11, 12 , immersed in the data and aware of the context in which the beginning with substantive coding of the transcripts as participants' comments were made.
Finally, the details of described by Glaser Codes were embedded into the data collection procedures and subject characteristics pre- transcripts using The Ethnograph micro-computer program sented in this paper allow for an assessment of the transfer- 13 , and memos were written describing the significant ability of the findings to other settings. Summary memos were written for each of the first nine core participants, identitying the major issues raised in each participant's RESULTS interviews, and thematic reports were written to compare the issues across subjects.
As these procedures were con- The most prominent food classification scheme used by the ducted while data were being collected, the process was an study participants involved the dichotomization of foods as iterative one involving the writing of summaries; returning "junk food" or "healthy food. When food groupings another summary; and so on. All transcript segments dealing appeared. Five of the nine core participants who completed with specific themes were then consolidated and examined the task divided the foods into two groups, with "good," closely, along with intact transcripts and earlier summaries.
The most consistent classification system used, Evalua- tion of the adequacy of interpretation of qualitative however, was what the young women called "the food data involves establishing the credibility and transferability groups," based on the traditional Four Food Groups used of the findings, just as criteria of reliability and validity are by Canadian and American nutrition educators.
Once again used to evaluate the adequacy of the findings of quantitarive a distinction between healthy and unhealthy foods ap- studies 8. Techniques to enhance the credibility of quali- peared. All eight of the participants who used this system tative studies include prolonged, intensive contact with the identified at least five groups: the traditional four, and a field of study, use of multiple methods, and auditing inter- fifth group called "extras," "others," or most frequently , pretation by having selected participants and professional "junk.
To maximize transferabil- to healthy and unhealthy foods also showed that foods ity of the results, researchers must be explicit about how, classified as healthy were those seen as belonging in the Four under what conditions, and from whom data were col- Food Groups, while junk or unhealthy foods were those lected, thus allowing others to assess the degree to which seen as not belonging. Chocolate and potato chips were the the findings might apply to other groups 8, 9.
Purposive sampling healthy foods. With the core standing of the characteristics of each type of food, summa- participants, themes and issues raised in early interviews rized in Table 1. The young women tended to offer vague were checked and clarified in later interviews. June Table 1. Characteristics of junk food and healthy food. Friends who do not eat Junk Food Healthy Food very much junk food were noted as being self-controlled.
Despite the apparent expectation that all teenagers eat Not good for you Good for you junk food, there were some unfavorable connotations asso- High in one or more of: Low in: ciated with the behavior. Participants often felt it necessary sugar sugar to apologize or give excuses for the times they ate junk food. The young women expressed preservatives preservatives some ambivalence as to which group certain foods belonged artificial ingredients artificial ingredients in.
One participant gave ice cream as an example of junk Doesn't do anything for you Natural food but said that it does have some nutritional value so "it Fattening Contains: depends on how much you use it.
The participants' ambivalence about the healthy or un- healthy nature of some foods reinforces many of the char- acteristics and associations listed in Tables 1 and 2. Foods "not healthy," "not too beneficial," and "you don't need containing characteristics of both groups for example, are them.
A to classifY. In the end, many participants decided that those few also men- tioned salt and additives. Statements about made by Mom at home are healthy, while those purchased junk food being fattening or causing acne appear through- away from home and eaten with friends are not. Many participants spoke of being unable to The difficulty of using only two food categories, stay away from junk food, and of having cravings for it. A number suggested that there The perceived characteristics of healthy food were in should be a third group of "in-between" foods like ham- direct contrast those ofjunk food, with healthy foods being described as "good for you," and "high in nutritional Table 2.
What’s the Difference Between Processed and Ultra-Processed Food?
Everyone loves greasy foods, but are they good for you? Where is the nutrition? By frying or over-cooking your food, you cook all of the nutrients out. Think of a Big Mac, with all the fat and calories going through your bloodstream. Not a good thought! All of the fats, calories, and grease from the food will clog up your arteries and can cause other health problems too. When we talk about healthy food vs junk food, what exactly are we referring to?
Similarities and Differences of Health and Junk Food
Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on BMI, obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth-graders. Our main finding is that junk food availability does not significantly increase BMI or obesity among this fifth grade cohort despite the increased likelihood of in-school junk food purchases.
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Similarities and Differences of Health and Junk Food
But while enjoying the tasty food, people forget the quality of their meals. Different foods contain various types of healthy and unhealthy fats, so you need to choose the food options that are good for your body. When ordering food in a restaurant, most people think about the taste of their meal and not the actual nutritional value of the food coming their way.
Everyone wants to eat delicious food and enjoy the taste of life. Apart of enjoying the food, individual forgot to focus on the quality of meal. There are multiple differences between healthy and u nhealthy foods through which you can easily decide what to choose for eating. Healthy Foods. It is referred as the food which is beneficial for health in terms of nutrition and it also fits your body.
What Does Healthy Food and Junk Food Mean?
Food is a basic necessity for all organism on Earth. In fact, food is consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism, and it also provides energy, maintain life or stimulate growth. Nowadays, we classify food into two which are healthy food and junk food. Also, healthy food should be well-balanced and consists of all categories of food from the Food Pyramid in right proportion. Healthy food may be natural food, organic food, whole food, home-cooked meal and even vegetarian supplements. We can obtain healthy food from health food stores, at organic section in supermarkets or from our kitchen.
Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора. ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу. Сирена выла не преставая. Сьюзан подбежала к. - Коммандер. Стратмор даже не пошевелился. - Коммандер.
Сьюзан скинула туфли на низких каблуках от Сальваторе Феррагамо и блаженно погрузила обтянутые чулками ноги в густой шерстяной ковер. Высокооплачиваемые государственные служащие старались избегать демонстрации личного благосостояния. Для Сьюзан это не составляло проблемы: она была безмерно счастлива в своей скромной двухкомнатной квартире, водила вольво и довольствовалась весьма консервативным гардеробом. Но вот туфли - совсем другое. Даже во время учебы в колледже она старалась покупать самую лучшую обувь. Нельзя дотянуться до звезд, если чувствуешь себя ущемленной, - сказала как-то ее тетушка. - И если уж попала туда, куда стремилась, постарайся выглядеть на все сто.
Все закончилось. Действительно закончилось.
Не открыв своего алгоритма, он доказал АНБ, что тот не поддается дешифровке. Стратмор протянул Сьюзан газетную вырезку. Это был перевод рекламного сообщения Никкей симбун, японского аналога Уолл-стрит джорнал, о том, что японский программист Энсей Танкадо открыл математическую формулу, с помощью которой можно создавать не поддающиеся взлому шифры. Формула называется Цифровая крепость, говорилось в заметке, и доступна для ознакомления в Интернете.
Сьюзан посмотрела на него и подумала о том, как жаль, что этот человек, талантливый и очень ценный для АНБ, не понимает важности дела, которым занимается агентство. - Грег, - сказала она, и голос ее зазвучал мягче, хотя далось ей это нелегко.
Может быть, сказала, куда идет. - Нет. По-испански говорила очень плохо. - Она не испанка? - спросил Беккер.
Сердце ее готово было выскочить из груди. Было видно, что Хейл ей не поверил. - Может быть, хочешь воды. Она не нашлась что ответить.
Очевидно, там у него был адрес, который он сумел утаить. Это хорошо защищенный почтовый ящик, и мне лишь случайно удалось на него наткнуться. - Он выдержал паузу.
Теперь он мог принимать заказы в любой точке мира.