File Name: chinese foreign policy theory and practice .zip
- New Realities in Foreign Affairs: Diplomacy in the 21st Century
- Offensively Realist? Evaluating Trump’s Economic Policy Towards China
- Offensively Realist? Evaluating Trump’s Economic Policy Towards China
- Conclusion: Recognizing Chinese International Relations Theory
More than a century ago, the American scholar and diplomat Paul S.
Modern warfare is becoming increasingly defined by distance. Today, many Western and non-Western states have shied away from deploying large numbers of their own troops to battlefields. Instead, they have limited themselves to supporting the frontline fighting of local and regional actors against non-state armed forces through the provision of intelligence, training, equipment and airpower. This is remote warfare, the dominant method of military engagement now employed by many states.
New Realities in Foreign Affairs: Diplomacy in the 21st Century
I will specifically examine two key Trump policies; his initiation of a trade war with China and his withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership TPP.
Before beginning my analysis, I will briefly elaborate on the link between offensive realism and foreign policy. Offensive realism is a recent addition to the realist IR tradition, distinguishing itself from classical realism and defensive realism Telbami, , p.
Unfortunately, I cannot offer a detailed analysis of the debate that rages between realist scholars, though it is important to note that offensive realism is one type of realism, not the type of realism Kirshner, , p. First conceptualised by John J. Mearsheimer, offensive realism hereafter also referred to as realism adopts a structural view of international politics.
In doing so, it eschews the analysis of the internal dynamics of states; bureaucracy, structure of government, and leadership personality do not figure in a world of rational, utility-maximising states Mearsheimer, , p. Mearsheimer builds on the principles of classical realism an anarchic system, the importance of power and the fight for survival between states and articulates them into a rigorous theory that asserts that states will always seek to maximise power, achieve regional hegemony and subsequently prevent others from gaining such status ibid.
Despite asserting that military power is the ultimate currency in the international system Mearsheimer, , p. Essentially, military power cannot be acquired without significant reserves of wealth to manufacture weapons, invest in technology and train soldiers Ibid. Thus, it places a primacy on relative gains Grieco, , p. A final assumption that is relevant to trade is that of rationality, with Mearsheimer asserting that states will make a cost-benefit assessment and choose the policy that is most effective in improving its power position relative to its rivals , p.
Such assumptions are crucial in determining whether a policy is realist or not. Realists therefore spot the inherent dangers that occur when states do not behave as predicted and involve themselves in the political process to prevent this from occurring, making offensive realism both prescriptive and predictive Rosato and Schuessler, , p. However, when the economic order is more beneficial to one great power than the other, realists would expect the latter state to attempt to alter the system so as to ensure a relative benefit Ibid.
Such economic growth allows China to accelerate funding into its military Atesoglu, , p. That the Trump administration is bidding to alter this scenario by imposing massive tariffs on the Chinese which have been reciprocated BBC, has seen it associated with offensive realism Popescu, , p.
Whilst these tariffs have diminished US economic growth Tankersley, , an argument could be made that such policies remain in line with offensive realism as they damage the Chinese economy more, therefore increasing US relative gains Mearsheimer, , p. However, protectionism is the wrong remedy to the problem of Chinese relative growth.
A state can only expect to make relative gains via economic coercion if the targeted state cannot obtain the tariffed goods and services elsewhere Ibid.
The reality is that economic containment can only produce relative gains if done in concert with other states Art, , p. Such a policy approach would appear to be compatible with offensive realism, which suggests that states should pursue incremental increases in national power when the opportunity arises Snyder, , p.
In this sense, the agreement of a trade deal between the US and China earlier this year that covered many of the areas China derives its unfair advantages from Politi, could be viewed as a victory of Trumpian economic statecraft. As Grieco asserts, states are likely to cheat on or leave an international agreement should it become apparent that others are making gains relative to it , p.
Therefore, offensive realism would expect the cooperative agreement reached between the US and China to be short-lived. China will wish to defect from the agreement once it realises that curtailing its unfair business practices will reduce its competitiveness in the global economy and thus reduce its relative advantage over the US. Indeed, it has past form in this regard, repeatedly breaking WTO rules designed to curtail its unfair practices US Trade Representative, , p.
Not only has the Trump administration pursued a Chinese trade policy that is incompatible with offensive realism, it has rejected a trade agreement that had all the hallmarks of a sound, realist policy.
On his first day in office, Trump signed an executive order withdrawing the US from the Trans-Pacific Partnership TPP , a multilateral trade agreement with 11 other pacific rim nations, crucially excluding China Traub, His reasons for doing so can be viewed as compatible with offensive realism; he considered the TPP a bad deal due to the fact that the other trading partners benefit more than the US, thus meaning the US would make relative losses Magcamit, , p.
When viewed in this regard, TPP ratification was a fundamentally realist policy, with the deal projected to result in significant losses for China Sidkar and Mukhopadhyay, , p. Should China have chosen this latter option, they would have been locked-in a US-led trade regime designed specifically to limit the comparative advantages they derive from unfair trading practices Chow, , p.
In this sense, ratification of the TPP would have afforded the US far greater leverage over China as opposed to a unilateral trade war and therefore would have been a much more suitable remedy to the failed policy of engagement.
A realist administration would have avoided this outcome at all costs and ratified the TPP. Furthermore, it would be misleading to limit the benefits of TPP ratification merely to the relative gains it would have accrued to the US — there were also strong strategic incentives for this policy.
As Hasegawa elucidates, economic integration between states affords them a sense of mutual security against threats and often foreshadows military partnership , p. Therefore, many TPP member states saw the initiative as vital from a security perspective, as it demonstrated that the US had a commitment to engage in a balancing policy against China Miller, , p. The TPP would have demonstrated such a commitment and thus acted as a firm bulwark against Chinese expansionism in the region Hasegawa, , p.
That the Trump administration would ignore the geostrategic benefits of the TPP is therefore demonstrative that its policy approach does not align with offensive realism. The net result of these policies is a China that remains on course to dominate East Asia economically, with a continuation of such a policy approach surely ushering in Chinese regional hegemony in the future.
Art, R. A grand strategy for America. Ithaca, N. Atesoglu, H. Economic Groth and Military Spending in China. International Journal of Political Economy , [online] 42 2 , pp. BBC A quick guide to the US-China trade war. BBC News. Bin, L. Absolute gains, relative gains, and US security policy on China. Chow, D. Christensen, T. Fostering Stability or Creating a Monster? The Rise of China and U. Policy toward East Asia. International Security , [online] 31 1 , pp.
Emmerson, D. Foster, H. Anarchy and the limits of cooperation: a realist critique of the newest liberal institutionalism. International Organization , [online] 42 03 , pp. Hasegawa, M. Asian Security , [online] 14 2 , pp. Helmore, E. Introduction: Ordering the world?
Liberal internationalism in theory and practice. International Affairs , 94 1 , pp. Kim, D. Realists as free traders: the struggle for power and the case against protectionism.
International Affairs , [online] 94 6 , pp. Economic containment as a strategy of Great Power competition. International Affairs , [online] 95 6 , pp. Kirshner, J. The tragedy of offensive realism: Classical realism and the rise of China. European Journal of International Relations , 18 1 , pp.
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New York: W. Meltzer, J. Miller, M. The New York Times. Oren, I. Perspectives on Politics , [online] 7 2 , pp. Petri, P. The economic effects of the Trans-Pacific Partnerhsip: new estimates. Poletti, A. Containment Through Trade? Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Politi, J. Popescu, I. Political Science Quarterly , [online] 3 , pp.
Offensively Realist? Evaluating Trump’s Economic Policy Towards China
Reviews Thomas W. Robinson and David Shambaugh, editors. Chinese Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Clarendon Press, The collapse ofthe Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War have profoundly affected the international system and the major powers in that system—especially the People's Republic of China. China is no longer the junior partner in international communism or the card to be played in the superpower rivalry; rather, in the post-Cold War era, China has become a major regional power in an increasingly interdependent world.
Elites and elite change , Political systems , Conflict prevention , Crisis management. Modern diplomacy is currently experiencing fundamental changes at an unprecedented rate, which affect the very character of diplomacy as we know it. These changes also affect aspects of domestic and international politics that were once of no great concern to diplomacy. Ministries of Foreign Affairs, diplomats and governments in general should therefore be proactive in four areas:. Diplomats must understand the tension between individual needs and state requirements, and engage with that tension without detriment to the state. Digitization must be employed in such a way that gains in efficiency are not at the expense of efficacy.
Offensively Realist? Evaluating Trump’s Economic Policy Towards China
I will specifically examine two key Trump policies; his initiation of a trade war with China and his withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership TPP. Before beginning my analysis, I will briefly elaborate on the link between offensive realism and foreign policy. Offensive realism is a recent addition to the realist IR tradition, distinguishing itself from classical realism and defensive realism Telbami, , p. Unfortunately, I cannot offer a detailed analysis of the debate that rages between realist scholars, though it is important to note that offensive realism is one type of realism, not the type of realism Kirshner, , p.
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Conclusion: Recognizing Chinese International Relations Theory
Communist and Post-Communist Studies 1 December ; 53 4 : — Confucian friendship adds to the literature on friendship distance sensibilities and aims to maintain and even reinforce the Confucian ethical order, whereas contemporary international politics fails to provide any clear ethical order. The use of friendship and the concomitant creation of a friendly role by China indicate an intended move away from the improper order, including the tributary system, the Cold War, imperialism, and socialism. Confucian friendship continues to constitute contemporary Chinese diplomacy under the circumstance of indeterminate distance sensibilities.
China pledged to preserve much of what makes Hong Kong unique when the former British colony was handed over more than two decades ago. Beijing said it would give Hong Kong fifty years to keep its capitalist system and enjoy many freedoms not found in mainland Chinese cities. But it seems that these promises are fading. These moves sparked massive protests in Hong Kong and have drawn international condemnation. In , Beijing passed a controversial national security law and arrested dozens of pro-democracy activists and lawmakers, dimming hopes that Hong Kong will ever become a full-fledged democracy.
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This article tries to bridge the bureaucratic politics model of foreign policy analysis FPA , which is based on American foreign policy practice, and Chinese foreign policy studies. It traces the development and discusses the Chinese features of the bureaucratic politics model, and analyses the evolving bureaucratic political process of Chinese foreign policy-making. As China integrates more deeply into the international community, and communist ideology loses its political validity in Chinese politics, bureaucratic politics in China exhibits more prominent Chinese cultural features, and at the same time shares greater similarities with the bureaucratic politics in western democratic countries. Therefore, to avoid rigidity, attention must be paid to variances in bureaucratic politics as applied in the Chinese context. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in.
Paul H. He is also a non-resident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. Shambaugh is the son of George E. Shambaugh, Jr. He earned his bachelor's degree from the Elliott School of International Affairs of George Washington University , where he now teaches.
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Сэр, - удивленно произнесла Сьюзан, - просто это очень… - Да, да, - поддержал ее Джабба. - Это очень странно. В ключах никогда не бывает пробелов. Бринкерхофф громко сглотнул.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ не может с ним справиться. Сьюзан подумала о Стратморе, о том, как мужественно он переносит тяжесть этого испытания, делая все необходимое, сохраняя спокойствие во время крушения. Иногда она видела в нем что-то от Дэвида. У них было много общего: настойчивость, увлеченность своим делом, ум.