File Name: vitamin b12 metabolism and status during pregnancy lactation and infancy .zip
Nutrient needs during the life stages of pregnancy and lactation are increased relative to women who are not pregnant or lactating.
- Assessment of the Vitamin B12 Status of Pregnant Women in Nigeria Using Plasma Holotranscobalamin
- Cobalamin Status from Pregnancy to Early Childhood: Lessons from Global Experience
Assessment of the Vitamin B12 Status of Pregnant Women in Nigeria Using Plasma Holotranscobalamin
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Cobalamin Status from Pregnancy to Early Childhood: Lessons from Global Experience
Author disclosures: C. Duggan, K. Srinivasan, T. Thomas, T. Samuel, R. Rajendran, S.
Low cobalamin intake and status during pregnancy or lactation have been linked to adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes, whereas low cobalamin status during early childhood is associated with impaired development in children. Women who begin pregnancy with depleted stores low or very low plasma cobalamin will give birth to depleted infants who are likely to develop deficiency symptoms during the first few weeks or months postpartum. Newly ingested cobalamin during pregnancy and lactation from diet or supplements is transferred to the child and is not likely to correct cobalamin status in depleted women. The prevalence of low cobalamin status is high especially in low-income settings or in populations with a low intake of animal products. Folate and cobalamin play interdependent roles in one-carbon metabolism. Although folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy is widely recommended and practiced, cobalamin supplementation during pregnancy and lactation has received little attention. Furthermore, the intake recommendations for pregnant and lactating women and in early life need reevaluation in the light of newly available evidence in the field.
Vitamin B12 Metabolism and Status during Pregnancy, Lactation and Infancy Breast Milk Pernicious Anemia Megaloblastic Anemia Breastfed Infant Corrin.
Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that the altered fetal and neonatal environment influences physiological functions and may increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. Because homocysteine Hcy metabolic imbalance is considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases, we investigated whether maternal Vitamin B deficiency during early development alters the offspring's methionine-homocysteine metabolism in their brain. After birth, the offspring were organized into the following groups: control CT , deficient diet during pregnancy and lactation DPL and deficient diet during pregnancy DP.
It is generally assumed that vitamin B 12 deficiency only occurs during pregnancy and lactation in women who have consumed no animal products for a substantial period of time. Also, there is recent evidence that vitamin B 12 deficiency may be more prevalent in women and infants in some developing countries than formerly appreciated. In view of the potential for vitamin B 12 deficiency to cause permanent neurological damage, it is important to understand the relationships between maternal intake and metabolism of vitamin B 12 during pregnancy and lactation, and their impact on the mother, fetus, neonate, and secretion of the vitamin in breast milk. Unable to display preview.
NCBI Bookshelf. Vitamin B12 is a normal component of human milk. Low doses of vitamin B12 found in B complex or prenatal vitamins increase milk levels only slightly. Higher daily doses of 50 to mcg or more are needed in cases of maternal deficiency.
И все же он отдал кольцо, - сказал Фонтейн. - Вы правы, сэр. Но он не искал глазами убийцу. Жертва всегда ищет глазами убийцу. Она делает это инстинктивно.
Этот щит практически взломан. В течение часа то же самое случится с остальными пятью. После этого сюда полезут все, кому не лень. Каждый бит информации АНБ станет общественным достоянием. Фонтейн внимательно изучал ВР, глаза его горели.
Боже, поскорей бы все это закончилось, взмолилась она про. - Si. Si! - вскрикивала она в интервалах между его рывками и впивалась ногтями ему в спину, стараясь ускорить его движения. Все смешалось в ее голове - лица бесчисленных мужчин, склонявшиеся над ней, потолки гостиничных номеров, в которые она смотрела, мечты о том, что когда-нибудь все это кончится и она заведет детей… Внезапно, без всякого предупреждения, тело немца выгнулось, замерло и тут же рухнуло на. Это .