Renewable And Sustainable Energy Pdf

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Designing Sustainable Energy for All

Metrics details. The primary objective for deploying renewable energy in India is to advance economic development, improve energy security, improve access to energy, and mitigate climate change.

Sustainable development is possible by use of sustainable energy and by ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for citizens. The government has designed policies, programs, and a liberal environment to attract foreign investments to ramp up the country in the renewable energy market at a rapid rate. It is anticipated that the renewable energy sector can create a large number of domestic jobs over the following years.

This paper aims to present significant achievements, prospects, projections, generation of electricity, as well as challenges and investment and employment opportunities due to the development of renewable energy in India.

In this review, we have identified the various obstacles faced by the renewable sector. The recommendations based on the review outcomes will provide useful information for policymakers, innovators, project developers, investors, industries, associated stakeholders and departments, researchers, and scientists. The sources of electricity production such as coal, oil, and natural gas have contributed to one-third of global greenhouse gas emissions. It is essential to raise the standard of living by providing cleaner and more reliable electricity [ 1 ].

India has an increasing energy demand to fulfill the economic development plans that are being implemented. The provision of increasing quanta of energy is a vital pre-requisite for the economic growth of a country [ 2 ]. The National Electricity Plan [NEP] [ 3 ] framed by the Ministry of Power MoP has developed a year detailed action plan with the objective to provide electricity across the country, and has prepared a further plan to ensure that power is supplied to the citizens efficiently and at a reasonable cost.

Climate change might also change the ecological balance in the world. According to a World Energy Council [ 8 ] prediction, global electricity demand will peak in India is one of the largest coal consumers in the world and imports costly fossil fuel [ 8 ]. According to a report from the Center for monitoring Indian economy, the country imported million tons of coal in —, million tons in —, million tons in —, million tons in —, and million tons in — [ 9 ].

Therefore, there is an urgent need to find alternate sources for generating electricity. In this way, the country will have a rapid and global transition to renewable energy technologies to achieve sustainable growth and avoid catastrophic climate change. Renewable energy sources play a vital role in securing sustainable energy with lower emissions [ 10 ].

It is already accepted that renewable energy technologies might significantly cover the electricity demand and reduce emissions. In recent years, the country has developed a sustainable path for its energy supply. Awareness of saving energy has been promoted among citizens to increase the use of solar, wind, biomass, waste, and hydropower energies. It is evident that clean energy is less harmful and often cheaper. India is aiming to attain GW of renewable energy which would consist of GW from solar energy, 10 GW from bio-power, 60 GW from wind power, and 5 GW from small hydropower plants by the year [ 11 ].

Investors have promised to achieve more than GW, which is significantly above the ambitious targets. Recent estimates show that in , solar potential will be more than GW and wind potential will be GW [ 13 , 14 ].

To reach the ambitious targets of generating GW of renewable energy by , it is essential that the government creates , new jobs and livelihood opportunities [ 15 , 16 ]. A mixture of push policies and pull mechanisms, accompanied by particular strategies should promote the development of renewable energy technologies.

Hence, strategies to promote investment opportunities in the renewable energy sector along with jobs for the unskilled workers, technicians, and contractors are discussed.

This article also manifests technological and financial initiatives [ 19 ], policy and regulatory framework, as well as training and educational initiatives [ 20 , 21 ] launched by the government for the growth and development of renewable energy sources. The development of renewable technology has encountered explicit obstacles, and thus, there is a need to discuss these barriers. Additionally, it is also vital to discover possible solutions to overcome these barriers, and hence, proper recommendations have been suggested for the steady growth of renewable power [ 22 , 23 , 24 ].

Given the enormous potential of renewables in the country, coherent policy measures and an investor-friendly administration might be the key drivers for India to become a global leader in clean and green energy. An energy source is a necessary element of socio-economic development. The increasing economic growth of developing nations in the last decades has caused an accelerated increase in energy consumption. This trend is anticipated to grow [ 25 ].

A prediction of future power consumption is essential for the investigation of adequate environmental and economic policies [ 26 ]. Likewise, an outlook to future power consumption helps to determine future investments in renewable energy.

Energy supply and security have not only increased the essential issues for the development of human society but also for their global political and economic patterns [ 27 ]. Hence, international comparisons are helpful to identify past, present, and future power consumption.

Table 1 shows the primary energy consumption of the world, based on the BP Energy Outlook reports. Energy consumption of various major countries comprises commercially traded fuels and modern renewables used to produce power. Emerging economies such as China, India, or Brazil have experienced a process of rapid industrialization, have increased their share in the global economy, and are exporting enormous volumes of manufactured products to developed countries.

With 1. The yearly growth rate is 1. The country is expected to have more than 1. Each year, India adds a higher number of people to the world than any other nation and the specific population of some of the states in India is equal to the population of many countries. Renewables became the second most significant source of domestic power production, overtaking gas and then oil, by India consumed around 17 Mtoe of renewable energy in , and this will be Mtoe in Even though India has achieved a fast and remarkable economic growth, energy is still scarce.

Strong economic growth in India is escalating the demand for energy, and more energy sources are required to cover this demand. At the same time, due to the increasing population and environmental deterioration, the country faces the challenge of sustainable development. The gap between demand and supply of power is expected to rise in the future [ 32 ]. Table 4 presents the power supply status of the country from — to — until October In , the energy demand was 1,, GWh, and the availability was 1,, GWh, i.

According to the Load generation and Balance Report — of the Central Electricity Authority of India CEA , the electrical energy demand for — is anticipated to be at least terawatt hours TWh , with a peak electric demand of GW [ 34 ].

Increasing urbanization and rising income levels are responsible for an increased demand for electrical appliances, i.

The increased demand in materials for buildings, transportation, capital goods, and infrastructure is driving the industrial demand for electricity. An increased mechanization and the shift to groundwater irrigation across the country is pushing the pumping and tractor demand in the agriculture sector, and hence the large diesel and electricity demand.

The penetration of electric vehicles and the fuel switch to electric and induction cook stoves will drive the electricity demand in the other sectors shown in Table 5. The country could potentially increase its share of renewable power generation to over one-third by [ 35 ]. Table 6 presents the estimated contribution of renewable energy sources to the total energy demand. MoP along with CEA in its draft national electricity plan for anticipated that with GW of installed capacity of renewable power by , the expected electricity generation would be billion units BUs , which would contribute to BU energy requirements.

This indicates that The estimated total renewable potential amounted to India is a tropical country and receives significant radiation, and hence the solar potential is very high [ 40 , 41 , 42 ].

As of June reports, the country intends to reach GW of renewable power capacity by exceeding the target of GW pledged during the Paris Agreement. The sector is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world. As in October , India ranked fifth in installed renewable energy capacity [ 43 ]. Table 8 lists the cumulative installed capacity of both conventional and renewable energy sources.

The cumulative installed capacity of renewable sources as on the 31 st of December was The best regions for renewable energy are the southern states that have the highest solar irradiance and wind in the country. When renewable energy alone is considered for analysis, the Southern region covers As far as conventional energy is concerned, the Western region with State government, central government, and private players drive the Indian energy sector.

The private sector leads the way in renewable energy investment. Table 9 shows the installed gross renewable energy and conventional energy capacity percentage —ownership wise.

It is evident from Fig. Tata Power Solar System Limited are the most significant integrated solar power players in the country, Suzlon realizes wind energy projects, and ReNew Power Ventures operate with solar and wind power.

Gross renewable energy installed capacity percentage —Ownership wise as per the Table 10 shows the installed capacity of cumulative renewable energy state wise , out of the total installed capacity of 74, These five states cover almost Other prominent states are Andhra Pradesh 9.

These nine states cover almost As per the Around 9. Table 11 shows the installed capacity of renewable energy over the last 10 years until the The installed renewable energy production capacity has grown at an accelerated pace over the preceding few years, posting a CAGR of Table 12 gives the share of installed cumulative renewable energy capacity, in comparison with the installed conventional energy capacity.

The most significant renewable capacity expansion program in the world is being taken up by India. The government is preparing to boost the percentage of clean energy through a tremendous push in renewables, as discussed in the subsequent sections.

The overall generation including the generation from grid-connected renewable sources in the country has grown exponentially. Between — and —, it achieved The same was recorded with Figure 3 indicates that the annual renewable power production increased faster than the conventional power production. The rise accounted for 6. Table 13 compares the energy generation from traditional sources with that from renewable sources. Remarkably, the energy generation from conventional sources reached

Types of renewable energy

Metrics details. The primary objective for deploying renewable energy in India is to advance economic development, improve energy security, improve access to energy, and mitigate climate change. Sustainable development is possible by use of sustainable energy and by ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for citizens. The government has designed policies, programs, and a liberal environment to attract foreign investments to ramp up the country in the renewable energy market at a rapid rate. It is anticipated that the renewable energy sector can create a large number of domestic jobs over the following years. This paper aims to present significant achievements, prospects, projections, generation of electricity, as well as challenges and investment and employment opportunities due to the development of renewable energy in India. In this review, we have identified the various obstacles faced by the renewable sector.

Renewable energy

Overall, at least 1. And yet, the electricity required for people to read at night, pump a minimal amount of drinking water and listen to radio broadcasts would amount to less than 1 percent of overall global energy demand. Developing and emerging economies face thus a two-fold energy challenge in the 21st century: Meeting the needs of billions of people who still lack access to basic, modern energy services while simultaneously participating in a global transition to clean, low-carbon energy systems. And historic rates of progress toward increased efficiency, de-carbonization, greater fuel diversity and lower pollutant emissions need to be greatly accelerated in order to do so.

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Renewable and sustainable energy

It means sources of energy that are alternative to the most commonly used non-sustainable sources - like coal. Nuclear energy has a stable source, which means it's not dependent on the weather and will play a big part in getting Britain to net zero status. All our tariffs are backed by zero-carbon electricity 1 and if you choose to switch to us, you could play your part now in achieving the net zero target. Although it sounds like a perfect renewable energy source, the amount of solar energy we can use varies according to the time of day and the season of the year as well as geographical location. In the UK, solar energy is an increasingly popular way to supplement your energy usage.

Renewable electricity generation breakdown with nuclear as of Renewable energy is useful energy that is collected from renewable resources , which are naturally replenished on a human timescale , including carbon neutral sources like sunlight , wind , rain , tides , waves , and geothermal heat. Based on REN21 's report, renewables contributed This energy consumption is divided as 8.

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. A sustainable energy economy is one that reliably meets demand at reasonable cost and accounts for externalities that are not reflected in the current cost of fossil-fuel energy e. No single technology, renewable or otherwise, will be sufficient to satisfy these conditions on its own, so we will need a portfolio of energy options. In this chapter, we examine U.


sustainability and renewable energy, various methodologies can be found ce87ce95cbpdf (accessed on 13 October ).


The words "sustainable" and "renewable" are often used to describe certain sources of primary energy , often interchangeably. However, these words have very different meanings. Not everything renewable is sustainable, and in turn not everything which is sustainable is necessarily renewable.

Published Jul 14, Updated Dec 20,

Sustainable energy is energy produced and used in such a way that it "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The energy transition to meet the world's needs for electricity, heating, cooling, and power for transport in a sustainable way is widely considered to be one of the greatest challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Worldwide, nearly a billion people lack access to electricity , and around 3 billion rely on smoky fuels such as wood, charcoal or animal dung to cook. These and fossil fuels are major contributors to air pollution , which causes an estimated seven million deaths per year.

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