File Name: turning computing machinery and intelligence paper .zip
The Turing Test Sourcebook:.
The History of Artificial Intelligence
Since the invention of computers or machines, their capability to perform various tasks went on growing exponentially. Humans have developed the power of computer systems in terms of their diverse working domains, their increasing speed, and reducing size with respect to time.
A branch of Computer Science named Artificial Intelligence pursues creating the computers or machines as intelligent as human beings. Artificial Intelligence is a way of making a computer, a computer-controlled robot, or a software think intelligently , in the similar manner the intelligent humans think. AI is accomplished by studying how human brain thinks, and how humans learn, decide, and work while trying to solve a problem, and then using the outcomes of this study as a basis of developing intelligent software and systems.
Thus, the development of AI started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines that we find and regard high in humans. Artificial intelligence is a science and technology based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering.
A major thrust of AI is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving.
They provide explanation and advice to the users. For example,. A spying aeroplane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas. Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.
They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. In addition, they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adapt to the new environment. John McCarthy coined the term Artificial Intelligence.
Danny Bobrow's dissertation at MIT showed that computers can understand natural language well enough to solve algebra word problems correctly. Scientists at Stanford Research Institute Developed Shakey , a robot, equipped with locomotion, perception, and problem solving.
Interactive robot pets become commercially available. MIT displays Kismet , a robot with a face that expresses emotions. The robot Nomad explores remote regions of Antarctica and locates meteorites. Artificial Intelligence - Overview Advertisements. Previous Page. Next Page. Previous Page Print Page.
Dashboard Logout. AI programs can absorb new modifications by putting highly independent pieces of information together. Hence you can modify even a minute piece of information of program without affecting its structure.
Computing Machinery and Intelligence
Artificial intelligence AI , the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings. The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems endowed with the intellectual processes characteristic of humans, such as the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experience. Since the development of the digital computer in the s, it has been demonstrated that computers can be programmed to carry out very complex tasks—as, for example, discovering proofs for mathematical theorems or playing chess —with great proficiency. Still, despite continuing advances in computer processing speed and memory capacity, there are as yet no programs that can match human flexibility over wider domains or in tasks requiring much everyday knowledge. On the other hand, some programs have attained the performance levels of human experts and professionals in performing certain specific tasks, so that artificial intelligence in this limited sense is found in applications as diverse as medical diagnosis , computer search engines , and voice or handwriting recognition. Artificial intelligence AI is the ability of a computer or a robot controlled by a computer to do tasks that are usually done by humans because they require human intelligence and discernment.
Copeland finds an anticipation of the test in the writings of the Cartesian de Cordemoy. In the Discourse , Descartes says:. Although not everything about this passage is perfectly clear, it does seem that Descartes gives a negative answer to the question whether machines can think; and, moreover, it seems that his giving this negative answer is tied to his confidence that no mere machine could pass The Turing Test: no mere machine could talk and act in the way in which adult human beings do. Given the further assumption—which one suspects that Descartes would have been prepared to grant—that only things that think can produce different arrangements of words so as to give an appropriately meaningful answer to whatever is said in their presence, it seems to follow that Descartes would have agreed that the Turing Test would be a good test of his confident assumption that there cannot be thinking machines. Given the knowledge that something is indeed a machine, evidence that that thing can produce different arrangements of words so as to give an appropriately meaningful answer to whatever is said in its presence is evidence that there can be thinking machines. Block contains a direct discussion of The Turing Test in this context.
Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search.
The Turing Test
In the first half of the 20 th century, science fiction familiarized the world with the concept of artificially intelligent robots. By the s, we had a generation of scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers with the concept of artificial intelligence or AI culturally assimilated in their minds. One such person was Alan Turing, a young British polymath who explored the mathematical possibility of artificial intelligence.
Но я уезжаю сегодня вечером. Пожалуй, я все же оставлю ей записку. - И он положил конверт на стойку. Консьерж взглянул на конверт и что-то грустно пробормотал себе под нос. Еще один любитель молоденьких девочек, - подумал .
Но система безопасности АНБ была лучшей в мире. Никому даже близко не удалось подойти к базе АНБ, и у агентства не было оснований полагать, что это когда-нибудь случится в будущем. Вернувшись в лабораторию, Чатрукьян никак не мог решить, должен ли он идти домой. Неисправность ТРАНСТЕКСТА угрожала и базе данных, а легкомыслие Стратмора не имело оправданий.
Но Беккер слишком устал, чтобы обращать внимание на оскорбления. Проваливай и умри. Он повернулся к Росио и заговорил с ней по-испански: - Похоже, я злоупотребил вашим гостеприимством.