Ecology Of Weeds And Invasive Plants Pdf

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Invasive alien plant species: Their impact on environment, ecosystem services and human health

Ecological perturbations caused by biotic invasion have been identified as a growing threat to global sustainability. Invasive alien plants species IAPS are considered to be one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss and thereby altering the ecosystem services and socio-economic conditions through different mechanisms. Although the ecological impacts of IAPS are well documented, there is a dearth of studies regarding their economic quantification, livelihood considerations, biotechnological prospects phytoremediation, bioenergy, phyto-synthesis of nanoparticles, biomedical, industrial applications etc.

In this context, the current panoramic review aimed to investigate the environmental, socio-ecological and health risks posed by IAPS as well as the compounded impact of IAPS with habitat fragmentation, climate and land use changes. To this end, the need of an integrated trans-disciplinary research is emphasized for the sustainable management of IAPS.

The management prospects can be further strengthened through their linkage with geo-spatial technologies remote sensing and GIS by mapping and monitoring the IAPS spread. Further, the horizon of IAPS management is expanded to ecological indicator perspectives of IAPS, biosecurity, and risk assessment protocols with critical discussion. Moreover, positive as well as negative implications of the IAPS on environment, health, ecosystem services and socio-economy livelihood are listed so that a judicious policy framework could be developed for the IAPS management in order to mitigate the human health implications.

Biodiversity is inextricably linked with the ecosystem services and human welfare. Globally, biodiversity is known to produce food and ensure nutritional security Aerts et al. Phyto-synthesis of nanoparticles is another facet of biodiversity, which has recently revolutionized biomedical, sanitation, hygiene, food safety, environment, energy and agriculture sectors Rai et al.

These positive implications of biodiversity are essential for achieving the sustainable development goals SDGs. In this context, high income countries recorded 30 times greater numbers of IAPS, in comparison to the low income countries Seebens et al.

This trend can be attributed to higher trade and transport activities in countries with high per capita income. Emergence of new IAPS in novel ecosystems can impose threats to the environment and human health Seebens et al.

Habitat destruction, environmental pollution and anthropogenic global changes e. However, most common view among the invasion ecologists in this respect is that this global problem of IAPS is being accelerated by the anthropogenic perturbations Young and Larson, Human mediated transport, migration, and commerce are continuing to disperse an ever-increasing array of IAPS across previously insurmountable environmental barriers such as fresh and marine aquatic ecosystems, mountain ranges and even inhospitable climate zones Rai, , Kueffer, Modern intensive agriculture managed for food security, however, has remarkably increased the spread of IAPS Mack et al.

IAPS are not only linked with the environment, but also, to the human well-being, often in negative and sometimes, positive manner. These evaluations are needed in investigating the IAPS impacts in socio-ecological and socio-economic perspectives. The ornamental and multi-purpose IAPS, which were deliberately or accidentally introduced subsequently spread to impose adverse effects on human and the ecosystem health.

In brief, IAPS transmogrifies the global environment and the human health, in a highly intricate fashion, which, must be elucidated, to formulate integrated eco-restoration strategies Rai, Native plants can act as sink for air pollutants and contribute significantly to carbon sequestration Pejchar and Mooney, , Shackleton et al. Therefore, loss of native plant diversity through invasive plant pathogens may indirectly affect human health through perturbations in the environmental quality Jones and McDermott, Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that certain IAPS may act as ecological indicators of environmental pollution Rai, For example, spread of a plant pathogen, the invasive emerald ash borer EAB , resulted in massive destruction of dominant ash trees in the United States US , which otherwise acted as an effective sink for air pollutants Jones and McDermott, Extreme pollution stress is reported to result in mortality and economic loss is reported Jones and McDermott, Success of the IAPS is not decided by merely a single environmental factor and ecological attribute.

Here, it is worth mentioning that the plant invasion, anthropogenic disturbances, climate change, biodiversity and human health may have complex and intricate relationship Rai and Kim, The human health impacts of invasion are further exacerbated by the rapid spread of vector-borne pathogens Clow et al.

Further, IAPS tends to reduce the global agriculture productivity, by acting as weeds, besides, hampering the forest diversity Haines, It has been noted that global terrestrial as well as aquatic environments are being invaded by numerous IAPS Table 1 , Table 2.

Therefore, unravelling the mechanisms, that make the replacement of indigenous climax communities originating through natural succession by IAPS-dominated communities Blumenthal, , Rai, , Zuppinger et al. Invasive alien plant species IAPS documented globally for their adverse environmental as well as socio-economic impacts.

IPBES in their deliverables 3 b ii explicitly listed the threats of IAPS to the global biodiversity, ecosystem services, human health and livelihoods. These issues are raised in an environmental management and human well-being perspective with the sustainability paradigm. Further, the quest of phyto-technological implications, associated with IAPS biomass management, further give an impetus to mitigating the associated human health hazards.

Therefore, understanding the invasion ecology of such species is of paramount important for developing suitable management strategies. In this review, the relevant cited literatures covered the progress made in IAPS science over the past couple of decades. However, the majority of cited articles covered the recent progress in invasion science, but particularly from to Exhaustive literature survey was done to provide the readers an explicit and panoramic view of the IAPS biology.

Since there is paucity of critical evaluation on the health impacts of IAPS, the articles covering bio-medical aspects were analysed in-depth.

We varied the several IAPS terms as keywords e. In addition, we also accessed the important scientific databases available on the IAPS for extracting the useful information. We also tried to cover the recent efforts carried out at international forum to address the IAPS issue for environmental restoration. In literature, there are several conceptually different ambiguous terms used in context of invasion ecology.

Therefore, before starting the discussions on the causes of IAPS success, we will briefly introduce the terms, associated with the invasion ecology. In addition to anthropogenic IAPS introductions, several other alien species have been introduced by other ways.

For example, Limnocharis flava in Kerala is believed to be introduced by ocean currents Abhilash et al. Similarly, the Coconut has been dispersed to various places of the world, even islands, through waves and ocean currents Harries and Clement, Thus, the horizon of IAPS ecology is gradually expanding. A frequently cited term i. Anthropogenic factors enable IAPS to overcome different bio-geographical barriers. Interestingly, these species may or may not be invasive, depending on their status along the naturalization-invasion continuum.

IAPS can significantly affect the native plants of the invaded region, which are those species which have evolved in a particular area without the human intervention and thriving by natural means. Anthropogenic disturbances have not only led to the global expansion of IAPS, but also have drastically shaped the invasion mechanisms Kueffer, In this respect, species specific mechanisms for elucidating the spread of alien plants is necessary as they show differential invasive potential in tune with their ecosystem attributes Ehrenfeld, But, any single hypothesis is insufficient to explain the invasion of the IAPS.

Sharma et al. In this respect, ERH hypothesis posits that some IAPS become more successful in the novel habitats when they are away from natural enemies like pathogens and herbivores found in their native habitats Blumenthal, , Rai, For example, the seeds of Impatiens glandulifera , in newly invaded regions are free from fungal pathogens Najberek et al.

Allelopathy is basically the ecological process in which biotic interference occurs through bio-active molecules Singh et al. Allelochemicals are interestingly identified as novel weapon NW , which dramatically suppress the native species and pave the way for IAPS colonisation in the new habitat Pinzone et al.

Allelochemicals are basically secondary metabolites; mostly phenolics, terpenoids and sesquiterpenes that affect native plant species adversely Singh et al. Among these allelochemicals, phenolic compounds are ubiquitous and often result in allelopathy. Several IAPS like Fallopia japonica Japanese knotweed , in United Kingdom, releases allelochemicals, which act as a novel weapon that drastically alters the food webs Smith et al.

Likewise, Chromolaena odorata secretes odoratin, a novel allelochemical, which imparts the ability to defend against enemies, especially soil borne pathogens, and thus provides the IAPS a competitive edge over the native species Zheng et al. Propagule pressure is reported as another potential IAPS strategy; it has been found to help Ardisia elliptica to invade the new habitats in south Florida Brooks and Jordan, , Rai, Zheng et al.

However, in the case of several IAPS like Phragmites australis, Melaleuca ericifolia, and Rumex conglomeratus , allelopathy and resource competition are found to act in unison to make the invasion more successful Uddin and Robinson, IAPS tend to affect the biotic plant-microbe interactions ranging from genomics and proteomics to ecosystem levels and abiotic the physicochemical soil attributes components in a variable spatial and temporal manner Song et al.

Molecular tools 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveal that the success of an IAPS like Ageratina adenophora Eupatorium adenophorum over native species in a new habitat, lies in their close association with the microbial diversity and the increased levels of nitrate in soils Yu et al.

The invasive Impatiens glandulifera increases the diversity of soil fungal and bacterial populations in its newly invaded habitats Gaggini et al. Further, several IAPS e. Invasive plants are found to spread even in the ice-free Islands of Antarctica despite the Antarctica treaty Hughes and Convey, Invasive plants affect the habitats adversely, reduce diversity and ecosystem attributes, which is further compounded by the climate change occurring in the pristine ice-free Islands Frenot et al.

Now there is a growing literature which reveals that the plant invasion is a major threat to forest biodiversity in protected areas also as is demonstrated in Gros Morne National Park in boreal Canada Rose and Hermanutz, , Foxcroft et al.

The Nature Conservancy TNC studies have further reinforced that protected areas across the world are also prone to the alien invaders Randall, SCOPE Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment assessed about invasive alien vascular plant species from 24 protected natural reserve areas in s Usher, , Foxcroft et al.

Global Invasive Species Program GISP has also reported that protected areas may be invaded with alien plants that may pose a serious threat to the native forest biodiversity Foxcroft et al. Climate change together with other anthropogenic disturbances are expected to cause the upward movement of invasive plant species from plains to mountain regions especially in the protected forested areas Diez et al. Such studies have also been carried out on the spread of the IAPS in protected forested landscapes of the Himalayan Mountains Adhikari et al.

Globally, the emergence of new IAPS is predicted due to the continuous anthropogenic disturbances Seebens et al. Several environmental e. In addition to terrestrial environment, aquatic ecosystems, particularly wetlands are also threatened with IAPS.

Biotic invaders resulted in the homogenization of biota at a global scale and thereby affected the environment and ecosystem services indirectly Pejchar and Mooney, , Shackleton et al. The IAPS, particularly flora and fauna invaders as per GISD , which affect the environment and economy of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, are listed in Table 1. One well documented impact of IAPS is to reduce the biodiversity of native plants, which may have adverse implications for environment functioning, ecosystem services and global climate change Richardson et al.

Interestingly, the role of IAPS, in native biodiversity loss is widely acknowledged. However, their assumed role in extinction is debated among invasion ecologists and in order to negate it or confirm it uniform dataset across the diverse habitats especially in the islands is needed Gurevitch and Padilla, , Sax and Gaines, The invasion meltdown hypothesis states that the establishment of one invasive species in a new environment makes it easier for other non-native species to invade Simberloff and Von Holle, It is also worth mentioning that the first impact of IAPS, i.

Alien invaders are also known to adversely affect the wildlife Gan et al. For example, Spartina alterniflora replaces native macrophytes Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter in wetlands of China, which eventually leads to the decline in avian populations due to the movement and feeding restrictions Gan et al. The IAPS can invade the aquatic systems through certain novel physiological characteristics e. IAPS also tend to increase the flood frequency by narrowing the stream channels and altering soil attributes e.

Lizarralde has reported that the IAPS, Castor canadensis beavers also perturbs water quality and increases the flood risk. IAPS are also known to affect quantity of surface and ground water Shackleton et al.

Invasive alien plant species: Their impact on environment, ecosystem services and human health

Weed Biology and Management pp Cite as. No community is truly safe from plant invaders. Nor should it be. The problem is that some plant invasions have high ecological and economic costs associated with them Parker et al. Some economic costs of invasion are easily quantifiable e. The cost of invasive plants to crop and pasture land in the United States is calculated as well over 34 billion dollars annually Pimentel et al.

The study of plant invasions is the science that attempts to understand causes and consequences of plant introductions outside of their native areas. Invasive plants have an impact on global biodiversity and ecosystem function, and their management is a complex and formidable task. The applied aspects of this study include the health and economic impacts of invasions. Although research on plant invasions has progressed remarkably during the past several decades, scientists are still looking for answers to basic questions. Such questions are: 1 What are invaders?

Ecology of Weeds and Invasive Plants: Relationship to Agriculture and Natural Resource Management

Federal government websites always use a. There are three main methods used for control of invasive species -- biological, mechanical, and chemical. You can also use a combination of these three methods in an integrated weed management approach which some authorities would consider as the fourth method.

Ecological perturbations caused by biotic invasion have been identified as a growing threat to global sustainability. Invasive alien plants species IAPS are considered to be one of the major drivers of biodiversity loss and thereby altering the ecosystem services and socio-economic conditions through different mechanisms. Although the ecological impacts of IAPS are well documented, there is a dearth of studies regarding their economic quantification, livelihood considerations, biotechnological prospects phytoremediation, bioenergy, phyto-synthesis of nanoparticles, biomedical, industrial applications etc.

The current knowledge on the richness, ecology, distribution and management of non-native flowering weeds in Mexico and some data on their possible environmental and economic impact are briefly reviewed. We reviewed refereed publications, most indexed international articles. Most publications refer to management sensu lato

Control Mechanisms

Graphical abstract

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Japanese stiltgrass. Autumn Olive. Border privet. Bradford pear.

 - Если бы Танкадо был жив, мы могли бы заключить с ним сделку, и у нас был бы выбор. Но Стратмор ее не слышал. Его жизнь окончена.

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Теперь Дэвид Беккер стоял в каменной клетке, с трудом переводя дыхание и ощущая жгучую боль в боку. Косые лучи утреннего солнца падали в башню сквозь прорези в стенах. Беккер посмотрел .

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