Legal Ethical And Social Issues In Media And Information Pdf

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The Digital Divide, Addiction, and Bullying.

What to know about the Libraries: Spring Harvesting social media raises legal and ethical issues that must undergo careful consideration and risk assessment before the creation of a collecting program. The legal challenges faced involve social media user rights, whereas the ethical challenges concentrate on a larger question: just because we can archive social media, does that mean we should?

Legal and Ethical Issues Regarding Social Media and Pharmacy Education

What to know about the Libraries: Spring Harvesting social media raises legal and ethical issues that must undergo careful consideration and risk assessment before the creation of a collecting program. The legal challenges faced involve social media user rights, whereas the ethical challenges concentrate on a larger question: just because we can archive social media, does that mean we should?

Though copyright and ethical concerns contain expected ambiguities on the topic of social media collecting, fair use under copyright law likely provides cultural heritage institutions with a safety net amongst the uncertainty.

Having a foundation of understanding for the scope of these issues should help guide the creation of policies and practices surrounding social media harvesting and preservation.

As legal battles over social media continue, laws and legal implications are subject to change. Intellectual property rights pervade the discussion on legal dilemmas that researchers, archivists, librarians, and others confront when harvesting social media data. Digital platforms have become increasingly complex, and social media use has escalated, creating new avenues of research data. Current court cases related to intellectual property in social media predominantly deal with tweets and photography.

For example, Morel vs. The case involved photographs of the disastrous earthquake in Haiti that Daniel Morel posted on Twitter. The two publishing companies sold and distributed the images to clients, many of which were news sources. Unlike photographs, social media posts, such as those found on Twitter, may, in some cases, be insufficiently creative to qualify for copyright protection.

Creative works clearly exist on social media platforms. An interesting example includes a short story written solely on Twitter by acclaimed author David Mitchell.

However, somewhere in between the clear distinctions of short stories and short updates lie many posts that may not fall in either category. Twitter approaches this uncertainty by allowing users to file takedown requests for people who see others posting their content without attribution. Usually the takedown requests are for more obviously copyrighted content, like photographs or videos.

Despite ambiguity about what content is copyrightable on social media, fair use remains a significant defense against claims of copyright infringement. Like other copyrighted works in archival collections, copyrighted social media contents may be used without permission in cases permitted by fair use. This Toolkit cannot answer all fair use questions, no one can until a court rules on a specific fact pattern.

However, archivists often take calculated fair use risks when using copyrighted material in support of their professional mission. As Peter B. Another issue faced when collecting social media is that of privacy. Privacy concerns blur the boundaries between legal and ethical considerations.

An increase in computer technology means that it is easier to accumulate data and connect various data points about an individual, which is more difficult, though not impossible, to do with written records. Though not directly related to social media, the court dismissed a case regarding the public disclosure of private facts on the internet via a digitization program at Cornell University. The case, Vanginderen vs. He eventually was found innocent of the crime.

Vanginderen claimed that the digitization of the newspaper harmed his reputation because it was libelous and constituted the publication of private facts. The court dismissed the case twice. The privacy implications that exist when harvesting social media occur because these platforms are dynamic, i. The enigmatic ethical questions posed by social media collecting often lack clear answers, and sometimes only lead to more questions.

Some of them even appear to be transplants from traditional archiving and researching. Such queries include: What social media content is ethical to preserve? What, if any, information is it ethical to extract from this content? What procedures for harvesting and preserving are ethical? How does one balance her personal and professional ethical responsibilities?

These values help outline archival professional responsibilities and can act as a code of conduct. This difficult responsibility is often at the forefront of ethical issues in archives. For example, processing collections can reveal sensitive information about donors and their family members that remaining heirs might not want publicized or known; at the same time, restrictions hinder access to research data.

In addition to the SAA code of ethics and core values, SAA members have written case studies about ethical dilemmas they have faced and what aspect of the Code of Ethics it relates to. Currently, the four case studies provided on the SAA website demonstrate archivists need to document all of their selection actions and decisions when curating collections.

Archivists should also consult with other relevant sources, be they peers or communities of interest, to guarantee that all relevant perspectives inform their selection behaviors.

They address issues regarding donor relations, copyright, professional development, professional conduct, deeds of gift, and responsibility to employing institution. Outside of the archival profession, several groups have attempted to address ethical concerns with social media collecting.

As of August , conferences on digital research ethics were being planned at Stanford and MIT, and academic journals started working on issues devoted to ethics. This example highlights the need to establish and maintain research ethics when using new digital platforms like social media sites.

A New York Times article provided a list of questions that researchers should consider when creating a study, especially one based in the online realm. Who will be affected? How would you feel if you were a subject of the experiment? Is there a better way to achieve the same result? While privacy leads the discussion of ethics for social media harvesting and preservation, it rarely stands alone.

Frequently associated with privacy are consent, treatment of users and their creations, security, access, responsibility and control of content, transparency, and use, as demonstrated by the Facebook research controversy mentioned above.

Currently, there is no standard for navigating this web of ethical quandaries; however, that could change very soon. As more archival repositories collect social media, and more researchers use social media data in their research, the legal and ethical landscape will change. For example, a recently published volume, Rights in the Digital Era , contains four articles discussing at length the legal, ethical, and practical concerns of collecting and providing access to digital content.

Archivists and researchers alike face the challenge of applying already vague ethical and legal practices to the less familiar landscape of social media. Discussing the main ethical and legal issues here should make clear that there is not a one-size-fits-all solution to solving the problems that present themselves when collecting social media.

Yet, archivists and researchers face sizable ethical and legal considerations when making collecting, research, and publishing decisions. The same thought put into decisions made for traditional content should also be done when harvesting and preserving social media content. For this reason, familiarizing oneself the ethical and legal landscape is an important first-step in generating social media collection programs.

See entry in the annotated bibliography. Copyright Law. Copyright Victory. Marshall Rev. Gasaway, et al. Note that the courts have specific interpretations for each of these four factors. Google, Inc. HathiTrust , F. Menzi L. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, , Warren and Louis D. August 29, January 29, Behrnd-Klodt, Menzi L. Rights in the Digital Era. Chicago: Society of American Archivists, NC State Home.

Constitution, Art. Top of page.

Legal & ethical issues

Intellectual Property in International and Local Context 1. Definition of IP 2. Types of IP 3. Source: www. What is piracy?

Legal and Ethical Issues in Social Media

This module is about the legal and ethical issues to keep in mind when using social media and thus ensure your research profile is raised for all the right reasons, not the wrong ones. The key is to remember that all the laws, policies and social rules that apply in real life also apply on the internet. Material on the internet is protected by copyright.

Widespread use of social media applications like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter has introduced new complexities to the legal and ethical environment of higher education.

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Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age

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