Introduction To Material And Energy Balances Reklaitis Pdf

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Reklaitis (1983) Introduction to Material and Energy Balances

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Includes index. Chemical en, yeering—Mathematies. Mathemat cal optimization, 3. Nonlinear programming. Schnei der, Daniel R, IL.

Yet, in spite of their univer- sality, this class of computations is quite neglected in the chemical engineering curriculum. Unlike the transport, thermodynamics, and reactor design computa- tions, which are taught in a rigorous and systematic fashion, balance calculations are generally presented at a purely intuitive level, usually in the first chemical engineering course, and then only briefly revisited in the senior design course. Given the inadequate academic training, it is not surprising therefore that balance calculations continue to be one of the vague arts of the profession.

The comprehensive treatment of this subject presented here is an at- tempt to fill this obvious gap in chemical engineering education. To provide a thorough exposition of balance equation concepts.

To develop a framework for the analysis of flowsheet information and speci- fications. To present systematic approaches for manual and computer-aided solution of balance problems. The first goal is met with a detailed development of the structure, properties, and interrelationships of species and element balances as well as a comprehensive discussion of both the general energy balance equation and the thermochemical calculations required to evaluate the terms arising in that equation.

For instance the homogeneity of the material and energy bal ions is used to exp! The latter device considerably sim- plifies the formulation of the balance equations for multiple reactions. The former approach leads directly to the valuable notion of independent reactions, to con- structions for generating such reactions, and to a simple rule for testing the equiv- alence of species and element balances.

In addition, the difficult but central issue of interconversion between the enthalpy, phase distribution, wmperature, pressure, and composition of a system is also: introduced. Moreover, the interconversion computations are re- stricted to the use of the elementary dew point, bubble point, and isothermal flash calculations. Evaluation of the enthalpy function using thermodynamic tables, heat capacity correlations, and heats of transition are also covered in detail.

The heat- of-reaction calculations are fully developed using generalized stoichiometry con- structions, and the steady-state energy balance equation is formulated both in the heat-of-reaction and the total enthalpy form.

Special attention is directed at the selection of problem reference state and at the use of enthalpy data with different reference values. In short, the sclection of topics addresses all essential consider- ations that arise in the selection, formulation, and evaluation of balance equations. It provides a systematic way for determining whether the problem is underspecified, overspecified, or correctly specified.

Such a system- atic analysis is extremely important in design applications, in which, by definition, the problem is underspecified, as well as in process analysis applications, in which overspecified problems often must be dealt with—usually by deleting inaccurate or superfluous data, The degree-of-freedom analysis also provides criteria for se- lecting the location of the basis for the calculations, for determining the order in which manual unit calculations should be executed, for identifying whether the material balances can be solved independently of the energy balances, and for determining whether or not carrying unknown variables from unit to unit will be required.

Together with the equation-solving and root-finding techniques included in the text, the degree-of-freedom analysis thus serves to fulfill the third goal, that of providing a logical procedure for solving balance equations by manual means.

In addition to manual calculation methods, computer-oriented procedures for solving balance problems are also analyzed. The widely used sequential modular strategy is discussed and is contrasted to the simultaneous or equation-oriented approach. The discussion of computer-oriented strategies using flowsheets modeled in terms of elementary material balance :nodules allows the key issues of process flowsheeting to be introduced in a straightforward manner. Thus, the selection of tear streams, treatment of nonstandard specifications or control blocks , an in- troduction to elementary multivariable equation-solving and sequencing methods, as well as a comparative examination of the sequential and simultaneous strategies can all be given purely in terms of material balance problems.

After the basic energy balance chapters, computer-oriented strategies are reconsidered, and it is shown how the elementary material balance modules can be extended to accom- modate energy balances. Thus, the way is pointed to the more complex unit op- eration modules used in practical flowsheeting systems. The discussion of modules involving energy balances also suggests the need for computerized storage and use of thermochemical and other physical properties data.

An introduction is therefore given to computerized physical properties estimation systems. The text thus meets the third goal by giving an elementary but thorough presentation of the various approaches for solving full- scale flowsheet problems via the computer. All additional mathematical methodology required in the exposition, for example, root-finding methods and algebraic properties of linear equations, is presented as needed so that its utility and applicabitity are immediately demonstrated in the context of the discussion.

The computer-oriented portions of the exposition contain no program- ming details so that emphasis can be placed on the underlying methodoldgy rather than on code implementation. A FORTRAN program listing and a description of a rudimentary modular balance program are given in the solution manual for use at the instructor's option, i Although this book is intended for the first course in chemical engineering, its scope is sufficiently broad that the entire contents might not be covered in one course.

Cuts can be instituted as follows. First, Section 1. Chapters 2 and 3 should be discussed in their entirety. Section 4. Chapter 6, 7, and 8 should be covered in detail.

However, in Chapter 9, Section 9. The book includes nearly worked examples many of which involve multiunit flowshcets of some com- plexity. It is normally possible to discuss only about one third of these examples in class.

This work is really the result of the confluence of many sources and influences the complete acknowledgment of which is quite impossible. The linear algebraic treatment of stoichiometry clearly is extracted from the classical work of Aris and Denbigh. Elements of the degree-of-freedom analysis have been used sporadically by many chemical engineers: whoever the originator, to him goes the credit. The very idea of writing this book must be credited to Daniel R, Schneider, who, while a colleague at Purdue, was a partner in evolving the basic approach, in developing the overall outline of the book, and even in formulating some of the examples.

The text itself has benefited materially from the critical comments offered by Dan Schneider and by Profs. Lowell B. Koppel, Robert G. Squires, and Roger E, Eckert, Important clarifications and suggestions were also contributed directly by Profs.

Alden Emery and Ferhan Kayihan and indirectly by the numerous teaching assistants and even more nu- merous students whose questions and skepticism helped to reshape the manuscript over the past seven years. Finally, 1 am thankful for the supportive atmosphere created by my colleagues in the School of Chemical Engineering and for the patient, conscientious efforts of the clerical staff of the School in typing and processing a succession of drafts.

The Conservation Principles 12 1. Special Multiunit Configurations 69 2. The Rate of Reaction Concept 3. The Limiting Reactant and Conversion 3. The Fractional Yield 3. Determination o 3. The Maximum Number of Independent Reactions 4.

Characterization of Fossil Fuels 4. Construction of a Set of Independent Reactions 4. Application to Systems with Incomplete Stoichiometry 4. The Simultaneous Solution Strategy 5. The Basic Closed-System 6. Superimp Balance Equation 6. Single-Component Systems 7.

DATA 7. Energy Balance Appl 7. Energy Balance Applica 7. Enthalpy of Mixtures 7. Properties of the Energy Balance Equations 7. Degree-of-Freedom Analysis 7. Heats of Combustion and Their Use 8.

242209833 introduction to material and energy balances reklaitis pdf

Also issued online. No hay imagen de cubierta disponible H and engineering thermodynamics Stanley I. Introduction to ChE and engineering calculations 5 2. Get introduction to material energy balances solution manual PDF file for free from ou. Introduction to material and energy balances reklaitis download List of ebooks and manuels about Introduction to material and energy balances reklaitis download Balances for Engineers and. Material balances on processes involving chemical reactions may be solved by Levenspiel, Octave Sandler, Stanley I.

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Reklaitis (1983) Introduction To Material And Energy Balances
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