File Name: class and generic name of antibiotic .zip
Antibiotic , chemical substance produced by a living organism, generally a microorganism, that is detrimental to other microorganisms.
- Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century
- Overview of Antibiotics
- List of antibiotics
The following is a list of antibiotics. The highest division between antibiotics is bactericidal and bacteriostatic. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly, whereas bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior.
Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century
Antibiotics are a group of medicines that are used to treat infections caused by some germs bacteria and certain parasites.
They do not work against infections that are caused by viruses - for example, the common cold or flu. Antibiotics are normally only prescribed for more serious bacterial infections, as many infections get better on their own. Correct use of antibiotics is absolutely essential to help reduce antibiotic resistance. Germs become resistant to antibiotics over time, which then makes them less effective. The World Health Organization WHO says "the world urgently needs to change the way it prescribes and uses antibiotics" as antibiotic resistance is a major global threat.
Antibiotics are a group of medicines that are used to treat infections. Antibiotics are sometimes called antibacterials or antimicrobials. Antibiotics can be taken by mouth as liquids, tablets, or capsules, or they can be given by injection. Usually, people who need to have an antibiotic by injection are in hospital because they have a severe infection. Antibiotics are also available as creams, ointments, or lotions to apply to the skin to treat certain skin infections.
It is important to remember that antibiotics only work against infections that are caused by bacteria and certain parasites. A parasite is a type of germ that needs to live on or in another living being host.
Antibiotics do not work against infections that are caused by viruses for example, the common cold or flu , or fungi for example, thrush in the mouth or vagina , or fungal infections of the skin. Occasionally, a viral infection or minor bacterial infection develops into a more serious secondary bacterial infection. In this case, antibiotics would be needed. There are various antibiotics available and they come in various different brand names. Antibiotics are usually grouped together based on how they work.
Each type of antibiotic only works against certain types of bacteria or parasites. This is why different antibiotics are used to treat different types of infection. The main types of antibiotics include:. As well as the above main types of antibiotics, there are a number of other antibiotics that specialist doctors or hospital doctors may prescribe for more uncommon infections such as tuberculosis TB.
All my patients seem to know the rule about not drinking when you're on antibiotics - the troubl Some antibiotics work by killing germs bacteria or the parasite. This is often done by interfering with the structure of the cell wall of the bacterium or parasite. Some work by stopping bacteria or the parasite from multiplying. Antibiotics are normally only prescribed for more serious infections with germs bacterial and some parasitic infections.
Most common infections are caused by viruses, when an antibiotic will not be of use. Even if you have a mild bacterial infection, the immune system can clear most bacterial infections.
For example, antibiotics usually do little to speed up recovery from most ear, nose and throat infections that are caused by bacteria. So, do not be surprised if a doctor does not recommend an antibiotic for conditions caused by viruses or non-bacterial infections, or even for a mild bacterial infection.
However, you do need antibiotics if you have certain serious infections caused by bacteria, such as meningitis or pneumonia. In these situations, antibiotics are often life-saving. When you are ill, doctors are skilled at checking you over to rule out serious illness and to advise if an antibiotic is needed. Urine infections also commonly need antibiotics to prevent spread to the kidneys. Antibiotics can also be prescribed to treat acne - a less serious condition.
For acne, antibiotics can be taken by mouth or applied directly to the skin. The choice of antibiotic mainly depends on which infection you have and the germ bacterium or parasite your doctor thinks is causing your infection. This is because each antibiotic is effective only against certain bacteria and parasites. For example, if you have pneumonia , the doctor knows what kinds of bacteria typically cause most cases of pneumonia.
He or she will choose the antibiotic that best combats those kinds of bacteria. Even if you are pregnant or breastfeeding there are a number of antibiotics that are thought to be safe to take. It is important to take antibiotics in the correct way.
If you do not, this may reduce how well they work. For example, some antibiotics need to be taken with food and others should be taken on an empty stomach. If you do not take your antibiotics in the right way it will affect how much of them get into your body their absorption and therefore they may not work as well.
So, follow the instructions as given by your doctor and on the leaflet that comes with the antibiotic you are prescribed.
Always take the entire course of antibiotics as directed by your doctor. Even though you may feel better before your medicine is entirely gone, follow through and take the entire course. This is important for your healing. If an antibiotic is stopped in mid-course, germs bacteria may be partially treated and not completely killed. Bacteria may then become resistant to that antibiotic.
Overuse of antibiotics has led to some bacteria changing their form or structure mutating and becoming resistant to some antibiotics, which may then not work when really needed. For example, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA is a bacterium that has become resistant to many different antibiotics and is difficult to treat.
Other bacteria produce chemicals called enzymes such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases ESBLs which allow them to be resistant to certain antibiotics. Resistance to antibiotics has become a major health threat globally, as antibiotics are life-saving for serious illnesses.
So if your health professional says antibiotics are not needed for your condition, do not ask for them. Your health professional will explain in what circumstances you might need antibiotics and what symptoms should prompt you to return for another check.
If your illness has changed, or you have developed a secondary infection, antibiotics may be needed after all. Health professionals follow guidelines to help reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics. It is not possible in this leaflet to list all the possible side-effects of each antibiotic.
However, as with all medicines, there are a number of side-effects that have been reported with each of the different antibiotics. If you want more information specific to your antibiotic then you should read the information leaflet that comes with the medicine. Most side-effects of antibiotics are not serious. Common side-effects include soft stools faeces , diarrhoea, or mild stomach upset such as feeling sick nausea. Less commonly, some people have an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and some have died from a severe allergic reaction - this is very rare.
Antibiotics can kill off normal defence bacteria which live in the bowel and vagina. This may then allow thrush or other bad bacteria to grow. Some antibiotics may interact with other medicines that you might take. This may cause reactions, or reduce the effectiveness of one or other of the treatments. So, when you are prescribed an antibiotic you should tell a doctor if you take other medicines. In the past it was recommended that, if you were taking antibiotics and were also taking the pill , you should use additional contraception.
This is no longer the current recommendation after more recent evidence has been reviewed. Antibiotics other than one called rifampicin do not interfere with the effectiveness of the pill. You should continue taking your pill as normal if you also need to take any antibiotics. No, in the UK they are only available from your chemist, with a doctor's prescription. In some other parts of the world they are available over the counter.
However, to reduce the problem of resistance due to inappropriate use of antibiotics, it is best to always obtain medical advice before buying antibiotics. The length of treatment varies a lot. It depends on what kind of infection you have, how severe it is and how quickly you get better after starting treatment. Treatment can be:. It is very rare for anyone not to be able to take some type of antibiotic.
The main reason why you may not be able to take an antibiotic is if you have had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic in the past. Even if you have had an allergic reaction to one antibiotic, your doctor or health professional will be able to choose a different type of antibiotic, which you will be able to take.
If you are pregnant, there are certain antibiotics you should not take, but your health professional will be able to advise on which one is suitable if an antibiotic is needed. If you are on some medication, certain antibiotics may need to be avoided, or your regular medication stopped whilst you take the antibiotic. As above, when prescribed an antibiotic, make sure the prescriber knows about any other medication you take.
If you think you have had a side-effect to one of your medicines you can report this on the Yellow Card Scheme. You can do this online at www. The Yellow Card Scheme is used to make pharmacists, doctors and nurses aware of any new side-effects that medicines or any other healthcare products may have caused.
If you wish to report a side-effect, you will need to provide basic information about:. Antibiotic Resistance. UK, updated July UK, Took my first mg dose two days ago, and have noticed that my arms and legs feel weak since then. This is listed as a possible side affect and it is reccomended that I stop taking the medication Disclaimer: This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions.
Patient Platform Limited has used all reasonable care in compiling the information but make no warranty as to its accuracy.
Consult a doctor or other health care professional for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions.
Overview of Antibiotics
Dangerous, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past several decades. In this review the factors that have been linked to this phenomenon are addressed. Profiles of bacterial species that are deemed to be particularly concerning at the present time are illustrated. Factors including economic impact, intrinsic and acquired drug resistance, morbidity and mortality rates, and means of infection are taken into account. Synchronously with the waxing of bacterial resistance there has been waning antibiotic development. The approaches that scientists are employing in the pursuit of new antibacterial agents are briefly described. The standings of established antibiotic classes as well as potentially emerging classes are assessed with an emphasis on molecules that have been clinically approved or are in advanced stages of development.
List of antibiotics
Last updated on June 11, From treatments for painful strep throat or ear infections as a child, to burning urinary tract infections or itchy skin infections as an adult, antibiotics are one of the most highly utilized and important medication classes we have in medicine. Understanding the vast world of antibiotics and anti-infectives is no easy task. Anti-infectives are a large class of drugs that cover a broad range of infections , including fungal, viral, bacterial, and even protozoal infections. There is no one type of antibiotic that cures every infection.
Antimicrobial resistance AMR is a global threat with potentially devastating consequences to those infected with resistant pathogens and high direct and indirect cost to society. In the future, lack of effective antibiotics could make routine medical interventions extremely dangerous, make. For these reasons, AMR must be regarded as a global, regional, and national priority for health organizations and governments. Shionogi is a cosignatory of the January Davos Declaration. We call on all stakeholders to join the fight.
Antibiotics are drugs used to treat bacterial infections.
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