File Name: types of iv fluids and uses .zip
Choice of fluids in critically ill patients
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Are you sure you want to Yes No. Sky Samaritan. Exilda Chipande. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. No notes for slide. Iv fluid therapy types, indications, doses calculation 1. IntroductionCan You Imagine life without water? Of course not, because water is essential to sustain life.
Total Body Fluid can be divided into Intracellular andExtracellular 3. In humans average 70 KG , the intracellular compartment contains on average about 28 liters of fluid. In the average male 70 kg human body, the interstitial spacehas approximately How much of you is water?
What are Solutes? Term refers to the solute concentrationin the body fluid by weight. The numberof milliosmols mOsm in a kilogram kg of solution. Types of FluidThe fluids used in clinical practice are usefully classifiedinto colloids, crystalloids and blood products1.
Colloid Solutions that contain large molecules that dont passthe cell membranes. When infused, they remain in the intravascularcompartment and expand the intravascular volume andthey draw fluid from extravascular spaces via theirhigher oncotic pressure Types of Fluid2.
CrystalloidSolutions that contain small molecules that flow easily acrossthe cell membranes, allowing for transfer from thebloodstream into the cells and body tissues. Isotonic FluidsWhen to consider a solution isotonic? When the concentration of the particles solutes issimilar to that of plasma, So it doesnt move into cellsand remains within the extracellular compartmentthus increasing intravascular volume.
Isotonic FluidsA- 0. B- Ringers lactate or Hartmann solutionWhen to be used? B- Ringers lactate or Hartmann solutionNotice. Both 0. LRis often administered to patients who have metabolic acidosis not patientswith lactic acidosis-Dont give LR to patients with liver disease as they cant metabolize lactate- used cautiously in patients with sever renal impairment because it containssome potassium- LR shouldnt be given to a patient whose pH is greater than 7.
C -Ringers solutionLike LR, contains sodium, potassium, calcium, andchloride in similar. But it doesnt contain lactate. Ringers solution is used in a similar fashion as LR, butdoesnt have the contraindications related to lactate. But still can be added to provide some calories while the patient isNPO. Thank you for yourattention Diabetic ketoacidosis3. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Instruct patients to inform you if they feeldizzy or just "dont feel right.
Colloid solutionsHow does it work? Stop the transfusion. Keep the I. Notify the physician and blood bank. Intervene for signs and symptoms as appropriate. Monitor the patients vital signs.
Colloid solutions2- Hydroxyethalstarcheso Another form of hypertonic synthetic colloids used forvolume expansionoContain sodium and chloride and used for hemodynamicvolume replacement following major surgery and to treatmajor burnso Less expensive than albumin and their effects can last 24 to36 hours Colloid solutionsPrecautions when using Colloid solutions:1 The patient is at risk for developing fluid volume overload2 As for blood products, use an gauge or larger needle toinfuse colloids.
Colloid solutionsPrecautions when using Colloid solutions:4 Closely monitor intake and output. Take a careful allergy history from patientsreceiving colloids or any other drug or fluid , asking specifically iftheyve ever had a reaction to an I.
Components of fluid therapy1. Maintenance therapy: replaces normal ongoing losses2. Fluid Resuscitation: corrects any existing water and electrolyte deficits. Components of fluid therapyA.
Maintenance therapy Maintenance therapy is usually undertaken when the individual is not expected to eat or drink normally for a longer time eg, perioperatively or patient on a ventilator Maintenance therapyHow to calculate maintenance fluid flow rates? Fluid ResuscitationB Fluid Resuscitation :Correction of existing abnormalities in volume status or serumelectrolytes as in hypovolemic shock What is the Parameters used to assess volume deficit?
Fluid ResuscitationHow to know that the patient has Hypovolemic Shock? The patient has the following sings and symptoms Anxiety or agitation 2- Cool, Pale skin3- Confusion 4- Decreased or no urine output5- Rapid breathing 6- Disturbed consciousness7- Low blood pressure 8- Low body temperature9- Rapid pulse, often weak andthready Fluid ResuscitationRate of Repletion of Fluid deficit Severe volume depletion or hypovolemic shock: Rapid infusion of L of isotonic saline 0.
How to calculate IV flow rates! Intravenous fluid must be given at a specificrate, neither too fast nor too slow. To control or adjust the flow rateonly drops per minute are used. What is a drop factor? Drop factor is the number of drops in one milliliterused in IV fluid administration also called dripfactor. How to calculate IV flow rates? How to calculate drug dosage? Before doing the calculation,convert units of measurement to one system.
Example:The ordered dose is Ceftriaxone mg IV. How to calculate? IV lines common ProblemsA. Infiltrationwhen the catheter unintentionally enters the tissue surrounding the blood vessel and the IV fluid go into the tissues. PhlebitisInflammation of a blood vesselC. HypothermiaWhen large amounts of cold fluids are infused rapidlyD.
Local infection Abscess A microscopic organism may use the tiny hole in the skin created by the IV catheter to find its way into the body, and cause an infection Determine if patient needs maintenance or resuscitationIII.
Choose fluid type based on co-existing electrolyte disturbancesIV. Choose rate of fluid administration based on weight and minimal daily requirementsVI. Always reassess whether the patient continues to require IV fluid You just clipped your first slide!
Intravenous fluid therapy
Intravenous therapy abbreviated as IV therapy is a medical technique that delivers fluids, medications and nutrition directly into a person's vein. The intravenous route of administration is commonly used for rehydration or to provide nutrition for those who cannot consume food or water by mouth. It may also be used to administer medications or other medical therapy such as blood products or electrolytes to correct electrolyte imbalances. Attempts at providing intravenous therapy have been recorded as early as the s, but the practice did not become widespread until the s after the development of techniques for safe, effective use. The intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver medications and fluid replacement throughout the body as they are introduced directly into the circulatory system and thus quickly distributed.
Use of infusion fluids
However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base.
How to become a Registered Nurse. We do. Pass using our fast and efficient method, or your Premium membership is free. All nursing programs include fluid balance and intravenous IV therapy as part of the curriculum. The information about the types of IV solutions and when to use them can be confusing for a nursing student.
Prescribing parenteral fluids
Metrics details. Fluids are by far the most commonly administered intravenous treatment in patient care. During critical illness, fluids are widely administered to maintain or increase cardiac output, thereby relieving overt tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia. However, it is now understood that intravenous fluid should be viewed as drugs. They affect the cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal and immune systems.
This article describes the three main types of fluids used for fluid replacement therapy and fluid resuscitation, their composition, mode of action, indications and side-effects. Critically ill patients admitted to intensive care settings may need to be administered intravenous fluids — for example, to restore their blood pressure or replace lost blood. A crucial question arising in the management of these patients is which type of fluid to use. To decide which fluid is most appropriate and safest, nurses working in critical care need to understand how the different types of fluids act on the human body. This article describes the three main types of fluids crystalloids, colloids and blood products , their composition, mode of action, indications and side-effects. Nursing Times [online]; 12, Intravenous IV fluid replacement is one the most common treatments administered in intensive care and other critical care areas Myburgh and Mythen,
However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions.
За десять лет их знакомства Стратмор выходил из себя всего несколько раз, и этого ни разу не произошло в разговоре с. В течение нескольких секунд ни он, ни она не произнесли ни слова. Наконец Стратмор откинулся на спинку стула, и Сьюзан поняла, что он постепенно успокаивается. Когда он наконец заговорил, голос его звучал подчеркнуто ровно, хотя было очевидно, что это давалось ему нелегко.