File Name: lymphatic system of head and neck file.zip
- Lymph node ratio as a prognostic factor in head and neck cancer patients
- Lymphatic system
- Impact of Retropharyngeal Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
The lymphatic system , or lymphoid system , is an organ system in vertebrates that is part of the circulatory system and the immune system. It is made up of a large network of lymph, lymphatic vessels , lymph nodes, lymphatic or lymphoid organs, and lymphoid tissues. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not a closed system. The human circulatory system processes an average of 20 litres of blood per day through capillary filtration , which removes plasma from the blood. Roughly 17 litres of the filtered plasma is reabsorbed directly into the blood vessels , while the remaining three litres are left in the interstitial fluid.
Lymph node ratio as a prognostic factor in head and neck cancer patients
Metrics details. Lymph node status is one prognostic factor in head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of lymph node ratio LNR in head and neck cancer patients who received surgery plus postoperative chemoradiotherapy. From May to December , a total of head and neck cancer patients who received surgery plus postoperative chemoradiotherapy were analyzed. The primary sites were oral cavity 93 , oropharynx 13 , hypopharynx 6 , and larynx 5. All patients had pathologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma and 63 patients had neck lymph nodes metastasis.
Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. The authors have no relevant financial interest in this article. Previous studies concluding to the negative impact of RPLN metastasis rely heavily on radiographic assessment, which introduces the possibility of diagnostic error. All patients underwent dissection and pathologic interpretation of the RPLNs, most patients received postoperative radiotherapy, and 43 patients met survival analysis criteria. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without RPLN metastasis in rates of local recurrence Very little is known about the significance of retropharyngeal adenopathy for patients with non-nasopharyngeal carcinomas of the head and neck. The basis for this clinical obscurity is the relative remoteness of the retropharyngeal lymph node RPLN group.
1—The level system is used for describing the location of lymph nodes in the neck: Level I the oral cavity, anterior nasal cavity, soft tissue structures of the mid-.
Impact of Retropharyngeal Lymph Node Metastasis in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cervical lymph nodes are lymph nodes found in the neck. Of the lymph nodes in the human body, are in the neck. There are approximately lymph nodes in the neck, and they can be classified in a number of different ways.
Metrics details. The success of radiotherapy depends on the accurate delineation of the clinical target volume. The delineation of the lymph node regions has most impact, especially for tumors in the head and neck region. The purpose of this article was the development an atlas for the delineation of the clinical target volume for patients, who should receive radiotherapy for a tumor of the head and neck region. Literature was reviewed for localisations of the adjacent lymph node regions and their lymph drain in dependence of the tumor entity.
A, Anatomy of the posterior cervical triangle showing the confluence of superficial white and deep black lymph nodes in the middle part of the spinal accessory nerve SAN chain. Level Vb remains unchanged. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. Recently, radiological parameters have been outlined to identify boundaries between various neck levels.
Diagram of the neck as seen from the left anterior view. Left, The pertinent anatomy that relates to the nodal classification. Right, An outline of the levels of the classification.
Modified radical neck dissection with preservation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, spinal accessory nerve, and internal jugular vein. Modified radical neck dissection with preservation of the internal jugular vein and spinal accessory nerve. Selective neck dissection SND for posterior scalp and upper posterolateral neck cutaneous malignancies: SND II-V , postauricular, suboccipital or posterolateral neck dissection. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg.
The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis method to help classify medical images of neck lymph nodes in head and neck cancer patients. According to the current practice guidelines, the classification of lymph node status is critical for patient stratification before treatment. Take extra-nodal extension ENE of metastatic neck lymph nodes, the status of ENE has been considered a single factor affecting the decision of whether systemic treatment with toxicity should be given to patients with otherwise non-advanced cancer status. Medical imaging prior to surgery serves as tools for clinical staging and determining the extent of neck lymph node dissection during the tumor resection surgery.
Head and neck lymphedema: what is the physical therapy approach? A literature review. Head and neck lymphedema is considered a chronic and complex complication with potential to cause physical, functional, emotional and social impairment. To identify the approaches to physical therapy used to treat head and neck cancer-related lymphedema. Early diagnosis and assessment is key to properly managing and effectively treating lymphedema.
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