File Name: chinese scientific inventions and achievements .zip
- New Scientist ranks the top 10 discoveries of the decade
- Thirty Great Inventions of China
- The Four Great Inventions of Ancient China
- The Priority of Chinese Inventions.
New Scientist ranks the top 10 discoveries of the decade
Joseph Needham — and is widely accepted by Chinese historians. When these technologies were introduced to the Western countries through various channels, they substantially revolutionized world civilization.
Before the emergence of the printing technique, manuscripts were all handwritten by scholars. It is known that the block printing technique was used near the end of the Han Empire BC — AD both for printing on paper and for printing designs on cloth. Bi Sheng is credited with being the inventor of movable type printing in the Song Empire — He greatly innovated this important printing method, so he is called the "father of typography.
It isn't clear exactly how the printing techniques reached Europe. It is known that Uyghers from Xinjiang printed manuscripts during the rule of the Mongols in their empires in the West and in the Yuan Empire — So perhaps they taught the technology to Europeans or perhaps the Mongols or Arabs transmitted it. Once the printing methods reached the West however, when they acquired both paper and a method for mass production of literature, a social and scientific revolution began and large percentages of the populations of many countries became literate and educated.
This had never happened before in Europe. Guttenberg invented the printing press about European alphabets are especially suited for movable type printing since relatively very few letters need to be moulded, and relatively few pieces of type can be reused over and over again.
The printing press made printing easier, more rapid and precise. Printed material for educational, religious, and recreational use became commonly available for even the poor in Europe.
With their new knowledge, they transformed Western societies, and their general standard of living rose. Major political changes rapidly followed. At one time, durable writing materials were scarce and expensive, unwieldy such as clay tablets and rocks, or fragile such as wax and palm leaves. Clay tablets were used in Mesopotamia about 3, BC.
Papyrus, leather, and plates of wood were also used in the West, and in the Shang Dynasty era — BC , people used bones, silk and bamboo strips, and they inscribed ideas permanently on formal bronze objects. Fragments of early Han paper have been found. The paper was composed of rags and the fibers of trees and plants. To make a sheet of paper, these kinds of substances are repeatedly soaked, pounded, washed, boiled, strained and bleached.
The mash was strained in a mesh frame and then dried. The result was good quality writing material that was easier to produce on a large scale. It wasn't until about years later that paper making technology reached Europe via the Arabs.
By the s, paper was commonly produced around Europe, and together with the printing press that was invented in the s, economical mass publishing enabled mass education and the rapid dissemination of ideas. The printing press led to revolutionary social changes.
Mass literacy led to the Renaissance, the Reformation that changed the political system, the scientific revolution and industrial revolutions, and the great growth of world population. Gunpowder is a mixture of charcoal, saltpeter and sulfur. This mixture was invented and gradually improved by Chinese alchemists in the Tang Empire — It is thought that the alchemists discovered gunpowders' explosive properties while trying to concoct life extending substances.
The people of the Song Empire — and adjacent empires used gunpowder extensively during the s. They innovated gunpowder technology sufficiently to be able to construct a variety of weapons by using different formulas such as rockets, primitive guns, small cannons, incendiary devices, chemical weapons, bombs, grenades, landmines, and smoke-making devices for camouflage.
They also made fireworks and blasting powder for mining applications. The Mongol army and traders introduced gunpowder technology to Europeans when they invaded Europe in the s. The use of gunpowder substantially changed warfare, governments, and political boundaries.
The gun enabled lightly trained infantry armed with muskets to more easily kill heavily armored knights for example, and big cannons were able to destroy the strong fortifications all around Europe that were built before gunpowder was known. With big cannons, Turks were able to destroy Constantinople. Before the use of compasses , people could tell directions from the position of the sun, moon and stars and the orientation of plants.
Knowing direction is important when traveling, and if there is cloud cover or fog, traveling is difficult in unfamiliar territory and over open water.
It is thought that American tribes such as the Olmecs and others cultures around the world may have used natural magnetite even 3, years ago. It is possible that the Yellow River basin, during the time of the Xia Dynasty — BC , compasses were already in use.
It is recorded that Huangdi defeated an enemy army by using a southward-pointing cart that helped him know their position so that he could lead his army to them during a major battle near Beijing in the fog. However, scholars debate about whether this story was a myth, how this cart was designed or whether it actually incorporated a magnet at all.
It is known that during the early Han Dynasty, people commonly aligned their houses and practiced fengshui by using compasses. Later, especially in the Song Dynasty era, great progress was made in compass making. It was useful for sea exploration and navigation and stimulated the development of their shipping industry. Though there is evidence that the Vikings used compasses for navigation well before AD, it was a closely guarded secret.
It isn't clear how the rest of Europe acquired the invention. Perhaps other Europeans also used compasses, but they kept the technology secret too. But it is known that by the s, Europeans generally knew about compasses. Scholars debate about how the technology was acquired in Europe. The impact for Europe was great. Using the compass, Europeans began long-distance exploration and acquired more technology from around the world and great wealth. The compass enabled Europeans to discover America, carry on trade in Asia, and travel around the world.
Other important inventions were created, but these are not listed among the most important four. Most notable of these for world benefit and the development of the economies of the various empires were silk and porcelain. They were valuable trading goods traded along the Silk Road routes, and when the methods for making these products were learned in Europe and the Islamic world, big industries developed in both areas.
Today China is a mix of ancient culture and modern technologies existing side by side. You can go with us to take a tour to discover the history and culture of China. Tell us what most interests you about China, and our China experts will try to design a tour for you that fits you well. If the Silk Road interests you, see. Mass printing methods enabled the Reformation and the scientific and industrial revolutions in Europe.
Before the invention of paper during the Han Dynasty era, the wealthy often wrote on silk. A huge roll of firecrackers: Firecrackers are a very popular use of gunpowder in China. The Compass. Chinese porcelain. You can enjoy riding in a caravan train like a Silk Road trader in Dunhuang. Related Articles. Culture Chinese Kites — History and Culture.
Thirty Great Inventions of China
Four Great Inventions of Ancient China China held the world's leading position in many fields in the study of nature, from the 1st century before Christ to the 15th century, with the four great inventions having the greatest global significance. Papermaking, printing, gunpowder and the compass - the four great inventions of ancient China-are significant contributions of the Chinese nation to world civilization. Before its invention, words were written on various natural materials by ancient peoples-on grass stalks by the Egyptians, on earthen plates by the Mesopotamians, on tree leaves by the Indians, on sheepskin by the Europeans and strangest of all, even inscribed on bamboo or wooden strips, tortoise shells or shoulder blades of an ox by the early Chinese. Later, inspired by the process of silk reeling, the people in ancient China succeeded in first making a kind of paper called "bo" out of silk. But its production was very expensive due to the scarcity of materials. In the early days of the 2nd century, a court official named Cai Lun produced a new kind of paper from bark, rags, wheat stalks and other materials. It was relatively cheap, light, thin, durable and more suitable for brush writing.
The s saw huge leaps in physics, genetics, archaeology and technology. Here is our pick of the best. The particle helps explain why all other particles in the universe have mass, and its discovery completed the standard model of particle physics. Its use has since exploded, unfortunately including the widely condemned creation of the first gene-edited babies in China in In , Albert Einstein predicted that space-time — the fabric of the universe — was disturbed by strange ripples known as gravitational waves. Exactly a century later, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory collaboration announced that it had finally spotted these waves emanating from a pair of merging black holes.
The Four Great Inventions of Ancient China
Joseph Needham — and is widely accepted by Chinese historians. When these technologies were introduced to the Western countries through various channels, they substantially revolutionized world civilization. Before the emergence of the printing technique, manuscripts were all handwritten by scholars.
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The Priority of Chinese Inventions.
O ne of the oldest civilizations in the world, the Indian civilization has a strong tradition of science and technology. Ancient India was a land of sages and seers as well as a land of scholars and scientists. While some of these groundbreaking contributions have been acknowledged, some are still unknown to most. In this system, each symbol received a value of position as well as an absolute value. Due to the simplicity of the decimal notation, which facilitated calculation, this system made the uses of arithmetic in practical inventions much faster and easier. Indians, as early as BCE, had devised a system of different symbols for every number from one to nine. Binary numbers is the basic language in which computer programs are written.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. The book presents thirty great Chinese inventions, both ancient and modern, which are original, distinct, have made outstanding contributions and had extensive influence in China and around the globe. It also clarifies the misunderstandings and provides a clear definition and classification of the evaluation criteria for great inventions. Each invention is presented with color pictures and comprehensive discussions. His hometown is Wuxi, Jiangsu.
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Describe the cultural and scientific legacies of the Chinese. History, Early Civilizations: Describe the enduring impact of early civilizations in China after B.C. .
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences , engineering , medicine , military technology , mathematics , geology and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus , the sundial , and the Kongming lantern. The Tang dynasty AD — in particular was a time of great innovation.