Epidemiology And Demography In Public Health Pdf

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Oxford University Press makes no representation, express or implied, that the drug dosages in this book are correct. Readers must therefore always check the product information and clinical procedures with the most up to date published product information and data sheets provided by the manufacturers and the most recent codes of conduct and safety regulations. The authors and the publishers do not accept responsibility or legal liability for any errors in the text or for the misuse or misapplication of material in this work.

NCBI Bookshelf. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. Alan D.

Demography and epidemiology tend to analyse human processes in the aggregate. This article illustrates that definitions of demography and epidemiology provide some understanding of how they are typically used in medical history. The influence of demographic and epidemiological transition theories is discussed. The article mentions that extensive research into fertility behaviour in the past has dismantled many aspects of demographic transition and reveals that epidemiological transition has proved more durable in the face of empirical testing, but it is nonetheless problematically hidebound to a narrative of progress and modernization.

Epidemiology and Demography in Public Health

Epidemiology and demography are often so close that it can be difficult to distinguish one from the other. Is it necessary to train health demographers when epidemiologists could just as well do the job? Could researchers from either field learn something from each other? The reasons for the similarities between the two fields, and the reason why early demographers like J ohn Graunt , were also public health experts, are not surprising. Demographers are interested in the size and structure of populations, and the force of mortality is one of the three primary mechanisms that affect size and structure.

The fact that mortality is primarily affected by population health therefore resulted in demography and epidemiology becoming bedfellows. This also defines the difference between the two disciplines. Epidemiologists are less interested in population in itself and more in the diseases that affect individuals.

At least, that was one of the cases made here. My initial observation is that this is largely true; most of my epidemiologist colleagues are pharmacists, bio-medical scientists or medical doctors first, and epidemiologists second. They will engage a problem at the micro level, and afterwards perhaps generalize to the macro level; whereas demographers are more prone to work the other way around. This different approach may also lead us to different conclusions and recommendations.

Therefore, despite the strong similarities and common roots, there are also many small differences, resulting in synergy when the two fields are combined. Pharmacoepidemiologists and Demographers can learn a lot from each other. For the more adventurous demographers with health interests, there are some promising new subfields in which we can immerse ourselves. My primary interest is in the combination of pharmacoepidemiology and demography. Pharmacoepidemiology , the study of prescription drug use and its consequences in populations, is a fairly new discipline and therefore quite untouched by demographers, yet advances in drug research can have a profound impact on populations and therefore deserves our attention.

To give some other perhaps better examples of the future directions of demography and health, I expect to see some very interesting results from biodemographic research e. This research puts human ageing and mortality in the context of biological ageing and the mortality of animals in general. One finding may be that humans are not so different from other animals, meaning we will be able to answer important questions on disease progression and mortality through the proxy of animal research.

Alternatively, we will find the ways in which we differ from other species which is informative in its own right. A final example that should be mentioned is that demographers are also becoming more involved in genetics though this is not limited to ageing and mortality; we hope to a have a post on the topic of genetics and fertility in the near future from an investigator specialising in this. Insight from this field may radically alter current theories on human behaviour, which still tend to be more social rather than biologically informed.

It is quite likely that I missed some promising new subfields of demography, so I would love to know what you think worth the attention of the community of demographers. Comments or questions are also much appreciated! Maarten J. Bijlsma is an editor of Demotrends. His personal website can be found here. Reblogged this on My Journey in the World of Epidemiology.

There was actually a forum on this topic at the last PAA. Epidemiology sounded much more modern: caring about risks, heterogeneity, effect sizes, endogeneity aka confounding , actual diseases and their etiology. Thanks for your comment Philipp! Demographic techniques are still being refined and demographic trends, as you know, are changing e.

Epidemiology is probably changing faster, though but in the end, the big developments are going to be interdisciplinary. At least, if you dare to wander into other disciplines a bit ;P.

Basically demography studies the change of the population in terms of its size, influenced by fertility, mortality and migration. Of course many demographers and public health scientists do also perform studes at the micro level e.

What makes a population sick e. As many practioners as for instances MDs are trapped in their focus on persons in their daily work, the counterintuitive system-level thinking — which is natural for demographers — could add a lot to many fields in health and elsewhere. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.

Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Email Address:. About Guidelines for authors. Rate this:. Like this: Like Loading Tags: demography , epidemiology , interdisciplinary , pharmacoepidemiology , synergy. Thanks for reblogging sarahphillipsmph! Thank you for your useful comment on macro vs micro thinking, Fred! Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. As the elderly have become an ever-growing proportion of the American population, and as society has assumed some responsibility for their health, understanding the relationships among the factors that affect health has become crucial to policy makers. In this chapter we seek to build a framework for examining the interactions among the health-related behavior of individuals, genetic predispositions, the incidence of disease and fatality, the aging of the population, and levels of mortality and morbidity. Particularly crucial to policy makers is the relation between disability and mortality: When the incidence of disease or injury falls, so does the incidence of disability; and when death rates for people with a particular disability fall, that condition becomes more prevalent and thus demands on the health care system intensify. To focus on the elderly demands a special approach because the mortality and health of the elderly and of younger people differ dramatically. The likelihood that someone suffers from multiple diseases, and from functional limitations, increases with age.

If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. On an almost daily basis, people read or hear about new drug discoveries and adverse reactions supposedly caused by drugs on the market. Sometimes panic sets in because a drug seems to be responsible for the death of some of its users, but how can people evaluate what they read and hear? How are adverse reactions and side effects studied and measured? To answer these questions and many others about medications and drugs used in society, data and information are gathered and analyzed through pharmacoepidemiological study.

Epidemiology and demography are often so close that it can be difficult to distinguish one from the other. Is it necessary to train health demographers when epidemiologists could just as well do the job? Could researchers from either field learn something from each other? The reasons for the similarities between the two fields, and the reason why early demographers like J ohn Graunt , were also public health experts, are not surprising. Demographers are interested in the size and structure of populations, and the force of mortality is one of the three primary mechanisms that affect size and structure. The fact that mortality is primarily affected by population health therefore resulted in demography and epidemiology becoming bedfellows. This also defines the difference between the two disciplines.


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Demography and epidemiology: past and future directions

Metrics details. Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing an epidemiological transition from a predominance of infectious diseases to non-communicable and lifestyle related conditions. However, the pace of this transition and the pattern of disease epidemiology are uneven between affluent urban and rural poor populations.

Edited by Mark Jackson

Health needs assessment HNA is an essential tool to inform commissioning and service planning, and can be defined as a systematic method of identifying the unmet health and healthcare needs of a population, and making changes to meet those unmet needs. HNA allows for appropriate targeting of resources, and often involves working in partnership with other agencies, communities and service users. Indeed, HNA can be an excellent opportunity to involve stakeholders in service planning and increase ownership and sustainability. HNA may focus on specific diseases, population groups, procedures or interventions. The term need is used by a range of both health and non-health professionals in different and varying contexts. Jonathon Bradshaw defines four ways in which need is perceived:.

 Какой тип? - Беккер хмуро взглянул на полицейского. - Тот, что вызвал скорую. Он болтал что-то на ужаснейшем испанском, который мне только доводилось слышать.