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Autosegmental and metrical phonology
As a theory of phonological representation, autosegmental phonology developed a formal account of ideas that had been sketched in earlier work by several linguists, notably Bernard Bloch , Charles Hockett and J. Firth On such a view, phonological representations consist of more than one linear sequence of segments ; each linear sequence constitutes a separate tier.
The co-registration of elements or autosegments on one tier with those on another is represented by association lines. There is a close relationship between analysis of segments into distinctive features and an autosegmental analysis; each feature in a language appears on exactly one tier. The working hypothesis of autosegmental analysis is that a large part of phonological generalizations can be interpreted as a restructuring or reorganization of the autosegments in a representation.
Clear examples of the usefulness of autosegmental analysis came in early work from the detailed study of African tone languages , as well as the study of vowel and nasal harmony systems. A few years later, John McCarthy proposed an important development by showing that the derivation of words from consonantal roots in Arabic could be analyzed autosegmentally. In the first decade of the development of the theory, G. Clements developed a number of influential aspects of the theory involving harmonic processes, especially vowel harmony and nasal harmony, and John McCarthy generalized the theory to deal with the conjugational system of classical Arabic , on the basis of an autosegmental account of vowel and consonant slots on a central timing tier see also nonconcatenative morphology.
The autosegmental formalism departs from the depiction of segments as matrices of features in order to show segments as connected groups of individual features. Segments are depicted through vertical listings of features connected by lines. These sets can also underspecify in order to indicate a class rather than a single segment.
Environments can be shown by placing other connected sets of features around that which is the focus of the rule. Feature changes are shown by striking through the lines that connect a feature that is lost to the rest of the segment and drawing dotted lines to features that are gained.
Rather than classify segments using the categories given in the International Phonetic Alphabet , the autosegmental formalism makes use of distinctive features, which provide greater granularity and make identification of natural classes easier.
For unary features to be fully specified, it is necessary to include binary subfeatures that correspond to them. In the autosegmental formalism, this is depicted by placing the binary subfeature at a horizontal offset from the unary feature and connecting them with a line. The next top-level feature in the segment would then be connected to the unary feature as well as opposed to the tone.
There are situations in which the rule applies not to a particular value of a feature, but to whatever value the feature has. In these situations, it is necessary to include the presence of the feature, but not to specify its value. This can be done by including a placeholder feature composed of ellipses, with an indication of the type of feature. For example, a generic place feature can be indicated [ The autosegmental formalism deals with several separate linear sequences; because of this, a phonological representation is depicted on several distinct tiers.
Each of these tiers shows a different language feature. The autosegmental tier also "skeletal tier" contains the features that define the segments articulated in the phonological representation.
The descriptions given in the previous section deal with the segmental tier. In the segmental tier, features are assigned to segments. The timing tier contains timing units that define the lengths of segments in the phonological representation.
These timing units are commonly depicted as X's, and are assigned to segments. The stress tier contains the features that show the distribution of stress in the phonological representation.
The tone tier contains the features that show the distribution of tones in the phonological representation. As a theory of the dynamic of phonological representations, autosegmental phonology includes a Well-formedness Condition on association lines each element on one tier that "may" be associated to an element on another tier "must" be associated to such an element, and association lines do not cross plus an instruction as to what to do in case of a violation of the Well-formedness Condition: add or delete the minimum number of association lines in order to maximally satisfy it.
Many of the most interesting predictions of the autosegmental model derive from the automatic effects of the Well-formedness Condition and their independence of language-particular rules.
The autosegmental formalism can be especially useful in describing assimilation rules. Using it for such rules makes the relationship between the result of the rule and the environment obvious.
It also makes it possible to concisely describe rules that apply to different environments in different ways. The rule is that a coronal nasal will assimilate to the place of the following consonant. No more specification is necessary because place is the only feature of the following segment that factors into the rule. The assimilation is shown by striking through the line to [coronal] P on the left and drawing a dotted line to the [ From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Crossing the Boundaries in Linguistics pp Cite as. Harmony processes characteristically regulate the distribution of a given feature or feature complex in specific, not necessarily contiguous phonemes of a word. For example, in Finnish words the back-front contrast in rounded and in low vowels — but not in nonlow unrounded vowels — agrees with that of the stem, whereas in Navaho words, the contrast of anterior-nonanterior in coronal affricates and continuants — but not in other phonemes — is determined by the last coronal affricate or continuant in the word. Harmony processes fall into two distinct types depending on whether the harmonic features propagate in one direction only, or whether the propagation occurs in both directions. We shall term the former type, directional harmony, and the latter type, dominant harmony.
Professor of the Department of Linguistics. The work is dedicated to Gisela Collischonn in memoriam , admirable phonologist, who so prematurely left us. The eleven chapters that make up the book are structured around six questions 1 :. In the first chapter, Fonologia Estruturalista [ Structuralist Phonology ], by Juliene Pedrosa and Rubens Lucena, the Saussurean concept of langue is seen as a foundation for later formalizations of phonological theories. Specifically, regarding Structuralist Phonology, the authors introduce the founding theorists and the fundamental aspects of the study of a language.
Phonology: critical concepts in Linguistics 3, , The last phonological rule: Reflections on constraints and derivations 21, 60 , Papers from the General Session at the Regional Meeting 21 1 , , Current approaches to phonological theory , ,
(PDF) Autosegmental And Metrical Phonology
Alber, Birgit. Clash, lapse, and directionality. Bailey, Todd Mark. Non-metrical constraints on stress.
- Количество букв всегда составляло совершенный квадрат. - Готово! - крикнула Соши. Все посмотрели на вновь организованный текст, выстроенный в горизонтальную линию. - По-прежнему чепуха, - с отвращением скривился Джабба. - Смотрите. Это просто бессмысленный набор букв… Слова застряли у него в горле, глаза расширились. - О… Боже ты мой… Фонтейн тоже все понял.
Севильское солнце бывает безжалостным. Будьте завтра поосторожнее. - Спасибо, - сказал Беккер. - Я сегодня улетаю. Офицер был шокирован. - Вы же только что прибыли.
Убивать Танкадо не было необходимости. Честно говоря, я бы предпочел, чтобы он остался жив. Его смерть бросает на Цифровую крепость тень подозрения.
От него не ускользнула ирония ситуации: он получал возможность работать в самом сердце правительства страны, которую поклялся ненавидеть до конца своих дней. Энсей решил пойти на собеседование. Сомнения, которые его одолевали, исчезли, как только он встретился с коммандером Стратмором. У них состоялся откровенный разговор о его происхождении, о потенциальной враждебности, какую он мог испытывать к Соединенным Штатам, о его планах на будущее.
Ну и проваливай, пидор. Беккер посмотрел на нее внимательнее. К ней как-то не шло сквернословие - как неуместны сточные воды в хрустальном графине. Но, приглядевшись, он убедился, что она вовсе не такая изысканная особа, как ему показалось вначале.
Это абсолютно исключено.