File Name: environmental conventions and protocols upsc.zip
- Prelims Capsule : Major Conferences, Conventions, Protocols in Environment and Ecology
- Important Topics: Major Acts, Conventions, protocols and Bodies
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- Conferences, Conventions, Protocols in Environment and Ecology
The purpose of the Vienna Convention is to protect the ozone layer from depletion. The Vienna Convention and its Montreal Protocol are the first and only global environmental treaties to achieve universal ratification, with parties. It is not an absolute license and its basis is expediency and reciprocity.
Prelims Capsule : Major Conferences, Conventions, Protocols in Environment and Ecology
Convention is basically a guideline or framework in which the parties decide the basic guidelines outer skeleton without delving into the painstaking details. A convention begins as an international meeting of representatives from many nations that results in general agreement about procedures or actions they will take on specific topics.
A protocol to the convention is where the parties set specific aims or legal obligations. While a Convention encourages the parties to meet the goals, a Protocol commits them to do so. To combat desertification and mitigate decline or decrease the effects of drought through national action programs. It incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangement. So basically it is based on principles of participation, partnership and decentralisation and addresses arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas known as dry land where some of the most vulnerable ecosystems and people can found.
At present, 13 million hectare land becomes unproductive via desertification with a potential of producing 20 million tons of foodgrain, affecting some 1. It is the first and only internationally legally binding framework set up to address the problem of desertification. First of all, whenever there is a convention by name of a place you should know where it is. Place on bank of River Rhine, Germany: It aims to conserve terrestrial, marine and avian migratory species throughout their range.
It is an intergovernmental treaty, concluded under the aegis of the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP , concerned with the conservation of wildlife and habitats on a global scale. The Ramsar city in Iran where it was ratified in Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value.
Definition of wetland is "areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters". It includes more than wetlands worldwide. Wetlands are one of the most threatened of all ecosystems in India. Came into effect in to protect the ozone layer.
It does not include legally reduction goals for the use of CFCs the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion. These are laid out in the accompanying Montreal Protocol. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.
Since the Montreal Protocol came into effect, the atmospheric concentrations of the most important chlorofluorocarbons and related chlorinated hydrocarbons have either levelled off or decreased. Due to this, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering.
Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to levels between and The Montreal Protocol does not address HFCs, but these substances figure in the basket of six greenhouse gases under the Kyoto protocol. Perhaps the single most successful international agreement till date. The two ozone treaties have been ratified by parties, which includes states and the European Union, making them the first universally ratified treaties in United Nations history. An international treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds.
In , Large-scale public health crises occurred due to mercury poisoning, such as Minamata disease neurological disease causing symptoms of ataxia, numbness in the hands and feet, general muscle weakness, narrowing of the field of vision, and damage to hearing and speech, paralysis and even death.
Place in Japan, within 50 years Minamata became an official Japanese Eco-town in It is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts. It prohibits the useof "asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of all analogous liquids, materials or devices" and "bacteriological methods of warfare".
Aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants POPs. POPs: Chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio-accumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment.
Developed countries provide new and additional financial resources and measures to eliminate production and use of intentionally produced POPs, eliminate unintentionally produced POPs where feasible, and manage and dispose of POPs wastes in an environmentally friendly manner.
Multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals. The convention promotes open exchange of information and calls on exporters of hazardous chemicals to use proper labelling, include directions on safe handling, and inform purchasers of any known restrictions or bans.
Signatory nations can decide whether to allow or ban the importation of chemicals listed in the treaty, and exporting countries are obligated to make sure that producers within their jurisdiction comply. Canada refused o allow the addition of chrysotile asbestos fibers to the Rotterdam Convention. It is specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste to less developed countries LDCs. It is to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate.
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Important Topics: Major Acts, Conventions, protocols and Bodies
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Here is a list of the main environmental conventions and protocols in this article. It aims to protect the human environment from air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-term air pollution. Does the plethora of conventions, conferences and minutes that appear in the environment and ecology curriculum baffle you?
Does the plethora of conventions, conferences, protocols that appear in the Environment and Ecology syllabus confuse and put you off? This article is developed in order to make them simple to you. Before we probe in to the actual one, it is imperative to learn the background and process. A Conference is consulting together formally; a type of negotiations, there is only broad theme. In a conference the principle bodies are established for further deliberations if any required on the broad theme for which the conference is called for.
Conferences, Conventions, Protocols in Environment and Ecology
So, in order to boost up your preparation, we are sharing with you the important notes on Environment conventions and protocols. Hydro Fluorocarbons. India did not participate in it. Access to genetic resources and a fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their use of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Daily Current Affairs. Daily Editorial Analysis.
The Bamako convention uses a format and language similar to that of the Basel convention, except that:. The Stockholm Convention is perhaps best understood as having five essential aims:. Emperor Penguins would be extinct if climate goals are not met.
Most of the following agreements are legally binding for countries that have formally ratified them. Some, such as the Kyoto Protocol , differentiate between types of countries and each nation's respective responsibilities under the agreement. Several hundred international environmental agreements exist but most link only a limited number of countries. These bilateral or sometimes trilateral agreements are only binding for the countries that have ratified them but are nevertheless essential in the international environmental regime. Including the major conventions listed below, more than 3, international environmental instruments have been identified by the IEA Database Project. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article.
Convention is basically a guideline or framework in which the parties decide the basic guidelines outer skeleton without delving into the painstaking details. A convention begins as an international meeting of representatives from many nations that results in general agreement about procedures or actions they will take on specific topics. A protocol to the convention is where the parties set specific aims or legal obligations.
The Convention entered into force on 17 May Objective: The objective of the Stockholm Convention is to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants. The Convention will enable India to avail technical and financial assistance for implementing measures to meet the obligations of the Convention.