File Name: information and communication technology ict .zip
- Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Economic Modeling
- Module 1 – Basic concepts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – notes
- Module 1 – Basic concepts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – notes
- Information and communications technology
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Sarkar Published Engineering. This paper attempts to highlight the role of ICT in higher education for the 21st century. In particular the paper has argued that ICTs have impa cted on educational practice in education to date in quite small ways but that the impact will g row considerably in years to come and that ICT will become a strong agent for change among many educational practices.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Economic Modeling
The journal aims to provide a forum for publication and dissemination of scientific research conducted in the fields of management, as well as promote the interconnection of academic research with practical reality. It is intended to disseminate the scientific results obtained by academics and professionals, both nationally or internationally. The journal is based on a process of double blind review. Information communication technology ICT mediated innovation—adoption—implementation is one of the prime factors in the development of a nation.
Its enhancement can improve the productive capacity of developing countries. Though developing countries import much of their technology from abroad, ultimate success depends on the technological efforts and capabilities of individuals and organizations. But lack of capacity, technological know-how, training and experience limit developing countries in both utilizing the full potential of those imported technologies and developing an indigenous technology at a later stage.
It now seems important to know and understand the functions, dynamics and critical success factors of the innovation—adoption—implementation of these ICT-led initiatives at three different interconnected social levels i. The purpose of this study is to illustrate the innovation—adoption—implementation of ICT4D project in rural Bangladesh. This study showed that government, private organization, and NGO have initiated different ICT4D project nationwide, especially for rural people in Bangladesh..
It assists underprivileged populations i. People in rural areas anywhere in the world, but it is usually associated with applications in developing countries Karanasios, Since the eighteen-century, ICT supported initiatives in developing countries, especially in Africa and Southeast Asia, have attempted to address a range of national developmental issues including social, economic, technical, educational, cultural, rural and community disadvantage through a range of pilot projects telecentre, multipurpose community access centre, information kiosks to name a few.
Like other developing countries, Bangladesh has also initiated a range of ICT4D projects in rural and remote communities micro level through the direct intervention of international donor, international developmental agencies, NGOs, community groups, and private initiators meso level. Aiming to build technology enabled country, the government has already implemented ICT in all phases of government agencies and tried to enlarge the beneficiary groups with the help of private sectors Karim, Very little work to date has drawn from the innovation—adoption—implementation of ICT4D—linking concepts in development studies to this research domain.
Bangladesh has a total cellular subscription of As per the population of Bangladesh it has a population to cellular user ratio of 72— Bangladesh is the 12th largest country in terms of mobile phone use.
Bangladesh has an internet user of It constructs the 6. It means Bangladesh is the 42nd largest country in terms of internet using in the world CIA, Bangladesh has a SEA-ME-WE-4 fibre optics providing Bangladesh link to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations — 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighbouring countries. In the —12 fiscal year, the earning was USD Of these, about are doing outsourcing jobs Digital World, The effectiveness of ICT interventions in developing countries depends on the integration and possible change or reorganization at three different levels within the national context.
This can be summarized in Fig. Innovation—adoption—implementation of ICT intervention. ICT as a catalyst can contribute to a particular development sector if it combines with an appropriate national development strategy. For instance, a strategic development programme in developing countries integrates the alleviation of poverty, education, human skills building and the creation of a social environment that is conducive to the provision of universal access to basic welfare systems.
Moreover, it is also important to modify the contemporary national strategy or policy for realizing the potential benefit of ICT in national development. For instance, 1 Bangladesh, a primarily agriculture-based economy, has a public sector agricultural technology system which is obsolete and inadequate to meet the new challenges of market-driven commercial agriculture lacking adequate access to environmentally friendly seeds, fertilizer, post-harvest management systems and so on.
A well-resourced and responsive agriculture technology system is a priority for meeting the current and future needs in this sector. Therefore, a comprehensive agricultural technology policy or a fresh extension of existing agricultural technology policy will be a critical challenge to be addressed.
Madon emphasizes the adaptation of the internet and possible organization change within socio-economic development strategies for developing countries. Such development is only possible if the change focuses the interest of local communities within which the ICT application is implemented. The government of Bangladesh has increasingly utilized the ICT4D projects as a means of the strategic provision of delivering public goods and services.
Government of Bangladesh has taken a number of initiatives to introducing various ICT4D project in its rural and regional areas. Mobile phone companies, private organization, and NGO have also initiated different ICT4D project nationwide, especially for rural people in Bangladesh. Here is some index and facts that can be taken into consideration CIA, Table 1. Gonokendras are mainly funded by joint financial contribution from both BRAC and the community involved.
Before establishing a Gonokendra in a village, at first, the authority completes a field study, which includes a needs assessment and community involvement.
Community involvement is considered as a core element. BRAC investigates the demand for a Gonokendra, considering sites that are suitable, convenient and have a reasonable number of people, markets, post offices, and a union parishad local government office. If there is a positive response from the local community, BRAC sends an offer letter to the school's management committee, the headmaster or a nominee from the community, regarding establishing a Gonokendra.
The rural community provides a room of — square feet for the library premises, free of cost, and must sign up at least — people—these will include donor members, lifelong members, general members and student members—with a minimum of Bangladesh Taka BDT 50, Membership categories have varying fees.
As soon as the community approached raises this membership fund, BRAC provides a matching grant of BDT to create a reserve fund for the Gonokendra. While there is no maximum target limit for membership numbers or amount of funds to be raised for any Gonokendra, BRAC's financial contribution will not be more than BDT The total amount is then deposited into a fixed term account in the name of a trustee board in a recognized financial institution.
The Gonokendra's recurring expenses, such as the librarian's salary, electricity and stationery are paid from the monthly interest on this investment. The training session includes understanding the basic operations of the Gonokendra and familiarization with the librarian's role and responsibilities. Committee meetings are held at least once a month, with the intention that the Gonokendra will become financially sustainable within 2—3 years.
To encourage people to become familiar with technology and its various applications, BRAC initiated an ICT programme as part of the Gonokendra initiative. Some of the ICT services at Gonokendras are described below. Computer training is one of the major components of the ICT programme offered by Gonokendra.
It consists of different computer courses for various age groups in rural areas, depending on the duration and capacity of the trainer who is the Gonokendra's librarian—each librarian has the role of trainer for all computer courses offered in her Gonokendra. TARC has designed, initially, two training blocks and instruction manuals for the librarians, all of whom must follow the same instruction manuals for computer training at their Gonokendras.
In this second block, the librarian also gets an opportunity to share her work experiences with the TARC staff. The children are given lessons in basic computer operation and drawing.
Disabled and poor children receive special rates to take this course. ICT for Youth general package : this is mainly offered to the educated young with the aim of building their ICT skills and providing improved scope in the job market.
It costs BDT for a one-month course. ICT for women, the poor and disabled people: in rural areas women, the poor and disabled are not able to access basic education. The aim of this package is to motivate and encourage these socially and financially isolated groups by providing access to basic computer operations training sessions free of cost.
Each Gonokendra has a set of 15—20 compact disks CDs : most have been produced in the local language. Health information—dealing with diarrhoea, drinking safe water, using sanitary latrines in the household, child and pregnant mother healthcare, basic cleanliness issues, AIDS, etc.
Legal information—early marriage, dowry, women's rights, legal assistance, etc. Environmental issues—e. This provides a valuable information bank for the villagers.
Table 2 provides a list of CDs with their contents in demonstration of this multimedia-based information dissemination programme. In Fig. An illustration of innovation—adoption—implementation and implications of ICT interventions in development.
Two major activities of the ICT intervention—computer training courses and multimedia sessions—form the focal study of this research. This indicates social innovation which refers to new strategies, concepts, ideas and organizations that meet social needs of all kinds—from working conditions and education to community development and health—and that extend and strengthen civil society.
In this article, we illustrate the innovation—adoption—implementation issues of Gonokendra to a certain community. Research into diffusion of innovation, focusing on the organizational level, demands certain provisions before adopting technology in a society Banuri, In Gonokendra case, it is essential to have a PC before accessing the Internet.
Technology is the central theme of the research in diffusion of innovation, with lesser emphasis on the social influences of an innovation. Time is an important element of diffusion of innovation research Rogers, The traditional diffusion study assumes that innovation is invariable over time which can be problematic in the context of today's rapidly changing technological environment.
In some cases, ICT pilot projects for development suggest to wait an unreasonable amount of time in order to be able to share in the benefits of development. The role of information systems in organizational change was recognized a long time ago.
Since s, researchers have been attempting to understand the mutual interconnection between information systems and organizational change from the strategic business and contextual points of view. Such attempts imply the adoption and implementation of technology within the changing business environment.
In Gonokendra case, it is important to investigate internal and external factors that affect organizational change and how actors people, senior management can act purposefully in managing change. The study of organizational change for the innovation—adoption—implementation of ICT programme can be done within an independent context surrounded by social actors.
This approach studies the interaction of multi-level structures, systems within which the ICT is implanted as well as the process of change over time. ICT can address numerous issues including empowerment of citizens. This empowering idea is repeated throughout the ICT policy document in different countries in all over the world.
Although ICTs can be important resources for citizens empowerment, it depends on which citizen and which context. In Gonokendra case, it is important to investigate empowerment factors that affect people in society. This paper successfully depicts the innovation—adoption—implementation scenario of ICT4D project in Bangladesh in terms of three social levels: macro, meso and micro.
In terms of the different projects adopted by Bangladesh government for the vision of Digital Bangladesh, this research has presented the pertinent functions, dynamics and critical success factors of innovation—adoption—implementation. Though this research is conducted on a certain community, it is worth to conclude that this research has been able to demonstrate the critical claims considering innovation—adoption—implementation of ICT4D projects of Bangladesh.
A further research can extend the current study to different communities in Bangladesh. Future research could investigate the innovation—adoption—implementation of ICT4D projects of Bangladesh initiated by government, NGO and private organization.
Section 4. ISSN:
Module 1 – Basic concepts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – notes
Examples are: software applications and operating systems; web-based information and applications such as distance learning; telephones and other telecommunications products; video equipment and multimedia products that may be distributed on videotapes, CDs, DVDs, email, or the World Wide Web; office products such as photocopiers and fax machines; calculators; and computer hardware. Electronic textbooks, instructional software, email, chat, and distance learning programs are also examples of ICT. Assistive technology, as it relates to information and communication technology, includes special tools or software to help people use computers, software, the Internet, telephones, or other technology used in education. Examples are: special keyboards; software to magnify a computer screen or audibly read the text on a computer screen; text telephones TTYs to help people who are deaf communicate using the telephone. Information and communication technology may be inaccessible to people if it provides only one way to access the information. For example, those with visual impairments cannot read documents presented only in a visual format; people who are deaf cannot understand content that is only presented orally; people who have limited use of their hands or arms may not use a computer mouse; and people who use wheelchairs may not be able to operate a fax machine if the controls are impossible to reach. Many of these barriers can be reduced or eliminated when the principles of "universal design" are used to design and develop the information technology.
Information and communications technology ICT is an extensional term for information technology IT that stresses the role of unified communications  and the integration of telecommunications telephone lines and wireless signals and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software , middleware , storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, and management. ICT is an umbrella term that includes any communication device, encompassing radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and appliances with them such as video conferencing and distance learning. ICT is a broad subject and the concepts are evolving. Theoretical differences between interpersonal-communication technologies and mass-communication technologies have been identified by the philosopher Piyush Mathur.
Module 1 – Basic concepts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) – notes
Metrics details. It also examines whether gender and socioeconomic background moderates this relationship. Students who frequently use the internet for messaging and participation in social networks i. The direction of this effect was the same in all 21 participating educational systems, the difference ranging from 19 to 75 points always statistically significant.
Eight English teachers who taught an oral communication course in a Thai university were interviewed to see what ICT tools they used to prepare materials or lessons as well as the purpose of using those tools. The semi-structured interview data was transcribed and classified into themes. The findings revealed that all teachers integrated technologies in the preparation process. Certain types of tools are already used by all teachers, while some cutting-edge tools were being integrated in the classrooms.
Information and communications technology
Кровь из ноздрей капала прямо на нее, и она вся была перепачкана. Она чувствовала, как к ее горлу подступает тошнота. Его руки двигались по ее груди. Сьюзан ничего не чувствовала. Неужели он ее трогает. Она не сразу поняла, что он пытается застегнуть верхнюю пуговицу ее блузки. - Сьюзан, - позвал он, задыхаясь.
Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер. Молчание. Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла. Подойдя поближе, она увидела, что в руке Хейла зажат какой-то предмет, посверкивавший в свете мониторов.
Откуда-то сзади до них долетело эхо чьих-то громких, решительных шагов. Обернувшись, они увидели быстро приближавшуюся к ним громадную черную фигуру. Сьюзан никогда не видела этого человека раньше. Подойдя вплотную, незнакомец буквально пронзил ее взглядом. - Кто это? - спросил. - Сьюзан Флетчер, - ответил Бринкерхофф. Человек-гигант удивленно поднял брови.
Today in India teaching training programmes making useful and attractive by the term of ICT. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) exemplified by.
Отчет безукоризненный. - Выходит, по-твоему, Стратмор лжет. - Не в этом дело, - дипломатично ответила Мидж, понимая, что ступает на зыбкую почву. - Еще не было случая, чтобы в моих данных появлялись ошибки. Поэтому я хочу узнать мнение специалиста. - Что ж, - сказал Джабба, - мне неприятно первым тебя разочаровать, но твои данные неверны. - Ты так думаешь.
- Мидж, - сказал. - Говорит Лиланд Фонтейн. Слушайте меня внимательно… ГЛАВА 112 - Надеюсь, вы знаете, что делаете, директор, - холодно сказал Джабба.
Фил физически ощущал, что времени остается все меньше. Он знал: все уверены, что он ушел. В шуме, доносившемся из-под пола шифровалки, в его голове звучал девиз лаборатории систем безопасности: Действуй, объясняться будешь. В мире высоких ставок, в котором от компьютерной безопасности зависело слишком многое, минуты зачастую означали спасение системы или ее гибель.
Да, мэм. - Я хочу услышать только да или. Возможно ли, что проблема шифровалки каким-то образом связана с вирусом.
Какие-то безумцы ныряли со сцены в это людское море, и его волны швыряли их вперед и назад, как волейбольные мячи на пляже. Откуда-то сверху падали пульсирующие стробоскопические вспышки света, придававшие всему этому сходство со старым немым кино. У дальней стены дрожали включенные на полную мощность динамики, и даже самые неистовые танцоры не могли подойти к ним ближе чем на десять метров.