Basics Of Research Paper Writing And Publishing Pdf

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This documentation describes the technology behind indexing of websites with scholarly articles in Google Scholar. It's written for webmasters who would like their papers included in Google Scholar search results. Detailed technical information is helpful if you're trying to fix an error in indexing of your own website, or you need to make sure that your article hosting product is compatible with Google and Google Scholar search services. If you're an individual author, it works best to simply upload your paper to your website, e.

How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper

This documentation describes the technology behind indexing of websites with scholarly articles in Google Scholar. It's written for webmasters who would like their papers included in Google Scholar search results. Detailed technical information is helpful if you're trying to fix an error in indexing of your own website, or you need to make sure that your article hosting product is compatible with Google and Google Scholar search services.

If you're an individual author, it works best to simply upload your paper to your website, e. Make sure that:. That's it! Our search robots should normally find your paper and include it in Google Scholar within several weeks. If it doesn't work, you could either 1 read more detailed technical guidelines in this documentation or 2 check if your local institutional repository is already configured for indexing in Google Scholar, and upload your papers there.

If you're a university repository, we recommend that you use the latest version of Eprints eprints. If you use a less common hosting product or service, or an older version of these, please read this entire documentation and make sure that your website meets our technical guidelines.

If you publish a small number of journals, consider using one of the established journal hosting services, e.

Aggregators that host many journals on a single website, such as JSTOR or SciELO, often work too, but please check with your aggregator to make sure that they support full-text indexing in Google Scholar. If you use a smaller journal hosting service, or if you maintain your own custom website, please read this entire documentation and make sure that your website meets our technical guidelines. Google Scholar includes scholarly articles from a wide variety of sources in all fields of research, all languages, all countries, and over all time periods.

Chances are that your collection of research papers will be a welcome addition to the index. To be considered for inclusion, the content of your website needs to meet the two basic criteria. The content hosted on your website must consist primarily of scholarly articles - journal papers, conference papers, technical reports, or their drafts, dissertations, pre-prints, post-prints, or abstracts. Content such as news or magazine articles, book reviews, and editorials is not appropriate for Google Scholar.

Documents larger than 5MB, such as books and long dissertations, should be uploaded to Google Book Search; Google Scholar automatically includes scholarly works from Google Book Search. Users click through to your website to read your articles. To be included, your website must make either the full text of the articles or their complete author-written abstracts freely available and easy to see when users click on your URLs in Google search results.

Your website must not require users or search robots to sign in, install special software, accept disclaimers, dismiss popup or interstitial advertisements, click on links or buttons, or scroll down the page before they can read the entire abstract of the paper. Sites that show login pages, error pages, or bare bibliographic data without abstracts will not be considered for inclusion and may be removed from Google Scholar.

Google Scholar uses automated software, known as "robots" or "crawlers", to fetch your files for inclusion in the search results.

It operates similarly to regular Google search. Your website needs to be structured in a way that makes it possible to "crawl" it in this manner. In particular, automatic crawlers need to be able to discover and fetch the URLs of all your articles, as well as to periodically refresh their content from your website.

PDF files must have searchable text, i. Each file must not exceed 5MB in size. To index larger files, or to index scanned images of pages that require OCR, please upload them to Google Book Search. A browse interface is necessary for the search robots to discover the URLs of your articles. Here're several common ways to organize a website that make it easy for the search robots to find and index all of the articles.

If you're hosting a small collection of publications, such as papers written by a single author or a small group, then we recommend that you list all articles on a single HTML page, such as www. If your website has thousands of papers or more, the best way to make sure they're all discovered by the search robots is to provide a way to list them by the date of publication or the date of record entry.

Other forms of browse interfaces, such as browse by author or by keyword, often generate more URLs than your website can deliver to the search robots in a reasonable amount of time.

For websites with more than a hundred thousand papers, we recommend that you create an additional browse interface that lists only the articles added in the last two weeks. This smaller set of webpages can be recrawled more frequently than your entire browse interface, which will facilitate timely coverage of your recent papers by the search robots. Keep in mind that the use of Flash, JavaScript, or form-based navigation makes it hard for our automated system to find your articles.

Since Google refers users to your website to read the papers, your webpages must be available to both users and crawlers at all times. The search robots will visit your webpages periodically in order to pick up the updates, as well as to ensure that your URLs are still available.

If the search robots are unable to fetch your webpages, e. If your website uses a robots. Conversely, it should block robots from accessing large dynamically generated spaces that aren't useful in the discovery of your articles, such as shopping carts, comment forms, or results of your own keyword search.

Or, to block all robots from adding articles to your shopping cart, add the following:. Google Scholar uses automated software, known as "parsers", to identify bibliographic data of your papers, as well as references between the papers. Incorrect identification of bibliographic data or references will lead to poor indexing of your site. Some documents may not be included at all, some may be included with incorrect author names or titles, and some may rank lower in the search results, because their incorrect bibliographic data would not match correct references to them from other papers.

To avoid such problems, you need to provide bibliographic data and references in a way that automated "parser" software can process. At this time, we're unable to effectively index multiple abstracts on the same webpage or multiple papers in the same PDF file. Likewise, we're unable to index different sections of the same paper in different files. Google Scholar supports Highwire Press tags e. Use Dublin Core tags e. To check that these tags are present, visit several abstracts and view their HTML source.

The title tag, e. Don't use it for the title of the journal or a book in which the paper was published, or for the name of your repository.

This tag is required for inclusion in Google Scholar. The author tag, e. Don't use it for the author of the website or for contributors other than authors, e.

Author names can be listed either as "Smith, John" or as "John Smith". Put each author name in a separate tag and omit all affiliations, degrees, certifications, etc.

At least one author tag is required for inclusion in Google Scholar. The publication date tag, e. Dublin Core equivalents are DC. Regardless of the scheme chosen, these fields must contain sufficient information to identify a reference to this paper from another document, which is normally all of: a journal or conference name, b volume and issue numbers, if applicable, and c the number of the first page of the paper in the volume or issue in question.

As with journal and conference papers, you need to provide sufficient information to recognize a formal citation to this document from another article. For all document types, the guiding principle is to present your article as it would normally be cited in the "References" section of another paper. Likewise, the name of the journal should be written as "Transactions on Magic Realism" or "Trans.

Omission or unusual presentation of key bibliographic fields can lead to mis-identification of your articles. All tag values are HTML attributes, so you must escape special characters appropriately. There's no need to escape characters that are written directly in your webpage's character encoding, such as Latin diacritics on a page in ISO However, you must still escape the quotes and the angle brackets.

If this page shows only the abstract of the paper and you have the full text in a separate file, e. Keep in mind that, regardless of the meta-tag scheme chosen, you need to provide at least three fields: 1 the title of the article, 2 the full name of at least the first author, and 3 the year of publication. Pages that don't provide any one of these three fields will be processed as if they had no meta tags at all. It works best to provide the meta-tags for all versions of your paper, not just for one of the versions.

The title of the paper must be the largest chunk of text on top of the page. Either use font size of at least 24 pt. Please use the same font for the entire title. Make sure that all other text on the page, in particular the name of the repository or the journal, is set in a smaller font than the title of the paper - otherwise, this other, larger, text may be incorrectly interpreted as the title of the paper.

The authors of the paper must be listed right before or right after the title, in a slightly smaller font that is still larger than normal text.

Either use a pt. Please use the same font for all author names. Make sure the names of the repository and the journal, as well as the text of the section headings, are set in a smaller font than the authors of the paper - otherwise, this other, larger, text may be incorrectly interpreted as the authors.

Use "Sentence case" as opposed to "Title Case" for section headings et. Separate multiple author names with commas or semicolons and omit their affiliations, degrees, and certifications from the author line.

Include a bibliographic citation to a published version of the paper on a line by itself, and place it inside the header or the footer of the first page in the PDF file, or next to the title and the authors in HTML. Use an explicit citation format, e. If the paper is unpublished, include the full date of its present version on a line by itself, e. Avoid use of Type 3 fonts in PDF files, because they're often generated with missing or incorrect font size and character encoding information, which makes it difficult for our parser software to extract the bibliographic data.

If you're using LaTeX, consider switching to Type 1 fonts, e. Mark the section of the paper that contains references to other works with a standard heading, such as "References" or "Bibliography", on a line just by itself. Individual references inside this section should be either numbered "1.

The text of each reference must be a formal bibliographic citation in a commonly used format, without free-form commentary.

Please understand that the references are identified automatically by the parser software; they're not entered or corrected by human operators. While we try to support the most common reference formats, it is not possible to guarantee that all references are identified correctly; and incorrect identification of references could lead to exclusion of your papers from Google Scholar or to low ranking of your papers in the search results. To check if a particular paper is included in Google Scholar, search Google Scholar for its title.

To check the coverage of your website in Google Scholar, search for titles of several dozen papers and see if these papers are included. If you can't find many of the papers in Google Scholar, there's probably a problem with the indexing of your website; please read the troubleshooting tips below. Keep in mind that changes that you make on your website will usually not be reflected in Google Scholar search results for some time.

How to Write a Research Paper in 11 Easy Steps

Department of Pediatrics, Seth G. This article deals with formulating a suitable title and an appropriate abstract for an original research paper. Often both of these are drafted after the full manuscript is ready. Most readers read only the title and the abstract of a research paper and very few will go on to read the full paper. The title and the abstract are the most important parts of a research paper and should be pleasant to read. The abstract should be consistent with the main text of the paper, especially after a revision is made to the paper and should include the key message prominently.

Publishing research results is an integral part of a researcher's professional life. However, writing is not every researcher's favourite activity, and getting a paper.

Basics of research paper writing and publishing

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Knowing the most important parts of a research paper helps you outline your paper quickly. It can also help to guide and frame your research. Follow the sample research paper outline here to get started. Different fields use different style guides in their research studies. The APA style guide, named for the American Psychological Association, is used in behavioral and social science research, including educational and psychological studies. Here are some basic tips for formatting an APA research paper. The style guides are similar in some ways, but have important differences as well.

The sky goes black, your breakfast turns to a brick in your stomach. A research paper? FIVE pages long? But not all of us are born gifted writers. But fear not!! If you follow these 11 steps we promise you will write a better essay, faster.

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