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Industrial Data Communications 4th Edition.
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Practical Industrial Data Networks
Industrial Data Communications 4th Edition. The information presented in this publication is for the general education of the reader. Because neither the author nor the publisher have any contrai over the use of the information by the reader, both the author and the publisher dis- claim any and ali liability of any kind arising out of such use.
The reader is expected to exercise sound professional judgment in using any of the information prese nted in a particular application.
Additionally, neither the author nor the publisher have investigated or considered the affect of any patents on the abili- ty of the reader to use any of the information in a particular application.
The reader is responsible for reviewing any possible patents that may affect any particular use of the information presented. Any references to commercial products in the work are cited as examples only.
Neither the author nor the publisher endorses any referenced commercial product. Any trademarks or trade names referenced belong to the respective owner of the mark or name. Neither the author nor the publisher makes any representation regarding the availability of any referenced commercial product at any time.
The manufacturer's instructions on use of any commercial product must be followed at ali times, even if in conflict with the information in this publication. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, elec- tronic, mecha nicai, photocopying, recording or otherwise, w ithout the prior written permission of the publisher.
Thompson, Lawrence M. ISBN pbk. Data transmission systems. T46 The many practitioners of various disciplines who, through no fault of their own, have arrived at the position of needing knowledge of industrial data communications just to survive.
Contents Preface. Chapter 2 Communications Models. Chapter 3 Serial Communication Standards. Chapter 5 Network Software. Chapter 6 Industrial Networks and Fieldbuses. Chapter 7 Wide Area Networks. Chapter 8 Internetworking. Chapter 9 Security. Appendix A Number Systems Review. Popular Conversion Numbers.
Appendix B Historical Aspects. Appendix C Media. Rationale In the fifteen or so years since the first edition of this book, nearly every aspect of data communications has changed, and above all industrial applications. Though these individuals never intended to become experts in data communications, they are nonetheless now forced to learn some specific detailed facts just to accomplish their primary job func- tions.
Unfortunately, fifteen years later, there is still a need to understand the technical jargon and polemics of data communications. Though you will not find it difficult or even tedious to acquire the necessary knowledge of data communications, the material must be organ- ized in a way that helps you stay focused on the key points. This edition provides that framework while also containing significant new material to encompass the changes in technology and indeed in the direction and focus of industrial applications since the third edition.
Specifically, I have expanded coverage of the different fieldbuses, of industrial Ethernet and wireless technologies, and of the security considerations that have become ubiquitous in industrial use.
The need to upgrade the third edition became apparent much as it had with the second edition: as soon as it was published. The field of data communication is quite dynamic.
Though the fundamentals have not changed or changed very little industrial applications are changing at a quicker pace, and unfortunately, much quicker than the revision cycles of the texts that hope to cover them. Though much of the previous three editions are still quite valid, this edition required more than a minor revision, and considerable freshening was needed to ensure that the materials are not dated. Objectives The objectives of the fourth edition are exactly the same as those of the previous ones: to introduce the principles and applications of industrial data communications and bring you to a level where you can communicate with other professionals on this topic.
Because of the changes in this field, particularly since the third version, this book assumes you are familiar with Internet use and perhaps some data communications applications. It is written in the same conversational style as its predecessors, with the hope that this informality maximizes your understanding.
Audience The intended audience is the person with some general technical education who is some- what literate with computers. Though knowledge of the electrical-electronic disciplines will aid understanding, it is still not a prerequisite, as quick and simplistic explanations of the concepts necessary for understanding are given in the appendices. However, as in previous editions, a willingness to understand new concepts and a sense of historical perspective will help.
As always when reading this text, patience as well as a sense of humor will be found high on the list of requirements. Topics As in all previous versions, the text ranges from simple basics to the complex applications.
A familiarity with basic number systems along with hexadecimal representation is required; though, here again, these are explained to the necessary level of complexity in the appen- dices.
For more detail on these subjects, many, many, ref- erence books, study materials, and computer-assisted training courses are available.
This book is not a design or engineering document but a primer designed to bring your knowl- edge quickly up to the current practice. Marlin, TX larrymthompson hotmail. Acknowledgments Whenever a book of this nature and length is created, there are many persons who contribute greatly besides the author.
I cannot name them all; however, here are a few of the persons responsible for this book being as successful as it is today:. Susan Colwell, ISA Manager of Publications Development, who managed to take my mangled text and graphics and place them in a coherent order;. Tim Shaw, Technical Reviewer, who contributed greatly to the technical accuracy of this volume and whose comments and guidance were greatly appreciated;. To the many users of this book who have contributed ideas, wishes, and technical com- ments, and to whom this book was originally, and still is, dedicated;.
And lastly, to my wife, Gavina, who gave up her time with me that this book could be developed, corrected, and finally brought to fruition. About the Author Larry Thompson has been an ISA adjunct instructor since and has designed, developed, taught, and maintained industrial controls and networks in many varied applications. Larry also served twenty years in the U. Air Force, primarily in electronic encryption systems.
In he started Electronic Systems development and training company ESdatCo , a technical services business, and is presently under contract as an IT technical manager for a financial institution with eight remote sites. Goals Communication has certain goals. In all communications there must be a source typically called the transmitter and one or more destinations typically called receivers.
The goal is to go from one end user the source to the other end user or users the destination. This trans- mitting is done through a medium of one kind or another, varying according to the technology used.
Audio communications use the air as a medium. Basically, this book is all about how we organize and move data. Data itself is useless until organized, at which time it becomes information. We organize communication processes in three basic ways: point-to-point, multi-drop, or networked.
Figure illustrates these three organizations. Note that while these terms are couched in technical symbology, the con- cepts behind them are relatively easy.
Point-to-point means just that, from one point to another, or from one end user to another directly. Multi-drop is closer to a network than to point-to-point. Generally, multi-drop involves a master of some kind with slave stations, not peers. It should be understood that by most definitions of a network, a multi-drop system is a network. Finally, a network is simply three or more stations connected by a common media, by which they may share information.
Later in this book we will tighten our defini- tion, dividing networks into wide area or local, and so on. But for now, where three or more stations are connected we will consider them a network. Figure illustrates the three different categories of communications: simplex, half-duplex, and duplex. These terms i. It is important that you understand these three terms because almost all descriptive language pertaining to data communications uses them. Figure Communications Concepts 3.
A circuit is typically the actual communications channel hardware configuration. Hence, a virtual circuit refers more to the process of communications than to an actual hardware configuration. The reader should be aware that these constraints may be due to hardware or software. If the hardware is duplex, the software may make it run half-duplex, however, if the hardware will not support a mode of operation, no amount of software will cause it to actually be so, although in the virtual world it may appear to be so to us, an example would be a half-duplex system that appears due to the speed and message constraints to be duplex to the user.
Simplex or Unidirectional Mode. In this mode communication occurs only in one direction, never in the opposite direction; in this case it is from A to B.
The circuit that provided this operation was originally called simplex, but this leads to confusion with telephony termi- nology.
Unidirectional is the name of the mode of transmission, and using it for this circuit would be much more descriptive. Half-Duplex Mode. In this mode, communication may travel in either direction, from A to B or B to A but not at the same time. Half-duplex functions much like human conversation does, that is, one speaker at a time and one or more listener s.
Duplex Mode. Serial transmission see figure has one channel one medium of transmission , and every bit follows one after the other, much like a group of people marching in single file. This means the expense of only one channel is required to send bits at much higher speed in order to achieve the same throughput as parallel transmission. Parallel transmission is where the signal must traverse more than one transmission channel, as in a group of people marching four or more abreast.
For a given message, a two- channel parallel will transmit twice as much information as a serial channel running at the same line speed.
Practical Industrial Data Communications
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Industrial data communication is characterized by its operating environment. Electromagnetic interference EMI , long distances and physical barriers set industrial communications apart from typical business office requirements. Conventional equipment usually lacks the versatility to adapt to the unique requirements of data monitoring and process control.
There are many data communications titles covering design, installation, etc, but almost none that specifically focus on industrial networks, which are an essential part of the day-to-day work of industrial control systems engineers, and the main focus of an increasingly large group of network specialists. The focus of this book makes it uniquely relevant to control engineers and network designers working in this area. The industrial application of networking is explored in terms of design, installation and troubleshooting, building the skills required to identify, prevent and fix common industrial data communications problems - both at the design stage and in the maintenance phase. The focus of this book is 'outside the box'. The idea of the book is that in reading it you should be able to walk onto your plant, or facility, and troubleshoot and fix communications problems as quickly as possible. This book is the only title that addresses the nuts-and-bolts issues involved in design, installation and troubleshooting that are the day-to-day concern of engineers and network specialists working in industry. Professional engineers: control engineers in industry, design engineers, test engineers, network installers and network support engineers; specialist students: industrial electronics, control engineering, data communications; control and instrumentation engineers; industrial system integrators; students taking electronics or computing degree courses; electrical, mechanical and chemical engineers and technicians wishing to understand the essentials of troubleshooting industrial data communications systems.
This is achieved by linking equipment such as PCs, programmable logic controllers PLCs , SCADA and distributed control systems, and simple instruments together with data communications systems that are correctly designed and implemented. In other words: to fully utilize available technology. Once you have studied this book, you will be able to analyze, specify, and debug data communications systems in the instrumentation and control environment,. It is especially suited to those who work in an industrial environment and who have little previous experience in data communications and networking. One is often criticized for using these terms of reference, since in reality they are obsolete. However, if we briefly examine the history of the organization that defined these standards, it is not difficult to see why they are still in use today, and will probably continue as such. The EIA has since established many standards and amassed a library of white papers on various implementations of them.
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Тогда он посадил его на заднее сиденье своего мотоцикла, чтобы отвезти в гостиницу, где тот остановился. Но этот канадец не знал, что ему надо держаться изо всех сил, поэтому они и трех метров не проехали, как он грохнулся об асфальт, разбил себе голову и сломал запястье. - Что? - Сьюзан не верила своим ушам. - Офицер хотел доставить его в госпиталь, но канадец был вне себя от ярости, сказав, что скорее пойдет в Канаду пешком, чем еще раз сядет на мотоцикл. Все, что полицейский мог сделать, - это проводить его до маленькой муниципальной клиники неподалеку от парка. Там он его и оставил. - Думаю, нет нужды спрашивать, куда направился Дэвид, - хмуро сказала .
ОБЪЕКТ: ДЭВИД БЕККЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН Как во сне она направилась к главному выходу из шифровалки. Голос Грега Хейла эхом отдавался в ее сознании: Сьюзан, Стратмор меня убьет, коммандер влюблен в. Она подошла к огромному круглому порталу и начала отчаянно нажимать кнопки. Дверь не сдвинулась с места. Она пробовала снова и снова, но массивная плита никак не реагировала. Сьюзан тихо вскрикнула: по-видимому, отключение электричества стерло электронный код. Она опять оказалась в ловушке.
Монахи и служки у алтаря бросились врассыпную, а Беккер тем временем перемахнул через ограждение. Глушитель кашлянул, Беккер плашмя упал на пол. Пуля ударилась о мрамор совсем рядом, и в следующее мгновение он уже летел вниз по гранитным ступеням к узкому проходу, выходя из которого священнослужители поднимались на алтарь как бы по милости Божьей. У подножия ступенек Беккер споткнулся и, потеряв равновесие, неуправляемо заскользил по отполированному камню. Острая боль пронзила вес его тело, когда он приземлился на бок, но мгновение спустя он уже был на ногах и, скрываемый занавешенным входом, сбежал вниз по деревянным ступенькам. Превозмогая боль, он бежал через гардеробную. У алтаря кто-то кричал, за спиной у него слышались тяжелые шаги.
Затем, охваченный паникой, помчался к двери. - Директор. Директор! - кричал. ГЛАВА 95 Кровь Христа… чаша спасения… Люди сгрудились вокруг бездыханного тела на скамье. Вверху мирно раскачивалась курильница.
Беккер искал какой-нибудь перекресток, любой выход, но с обеих сторон были только запертые двери. Теперь он уже бежал по узкому проходу. Шаги все приближались. Беккер оказался на прямом отрезке, когда вдруг улочка начала подниматься вверх, становясь все круче и круче.
- Мигель Буисан. - Понятно. Она получит ваше письмо утром. - Спасибо, - улыбнулся Беккер и повернулся, собираясь уходить. Консьерж бросил внимательный взгляд в его спину, взял конверт со стойки и повернулся к полке с номерными ячейками.