File Name: pak india relations and kashmir issue .zip
The move paves the way for New Delhi to initiate new development and investment projects for what is now an Indian union territory — but also exercise more power over a volatile region where Indian and Pakistani security forces exchange periodic volleys and accuse each other of infiltration. India-Pakistan relations, already tense since a Pakistan-based terror group killed more than 40 Indian soldiers in a February attack in Kashmir, are in deep crisis.
- India–Pakistan relations
- A Look into the Conflict Between India and Pakistan over Kashmir
- India–Pakistan relations
- Toward a Kashmir Endgame? How India and Pakistan Could Negotiate a Lasting Solution
Since achieving independence in , the relations between India and Pakistan have been such that the talks of trade, cooperation and peace have often taken place parallel to the threats of war. They have fought four wars and on more than one occasion mobilised their militaries with a credible threat of war. Since the early s, the insurgency in Kashmir and terrorist incidents in other parts of India have affected bilateral relations in a profound way. Serious terrorist attacks in India causing huge loss of life, such as the Mumbai bombings in and Mumbai attacks in , have often led to the loss of public support for dialogue with Pakistan. Groups targeting the peace process between India and Pakistan have exploited this reality to the extent of setting up a trend. For the past few years almost every Indo-Pakistan peace initiative has been followed by a terrorist attack. Consequently, the India-Pakistan debates have been led by belligerent minds, regularly perpetuating the negative narratives that have demonised the enemy and created virtuous self-images.
A Look into the Conflict Between India and Pakistan over Kashmir
The relations between the two countries have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in which started the Kashmir conflict , and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations. Consequently, their relationship has been plagued by hostility and suspicion. Northern India and Pakistan somewhat overlap in certain demographics and shared lingua francas mainly Punjabi , Sindhi , and Hindustani. After the dissolution of the British Raj in , two new sovereign nations were formed—the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. The subsequent partition of the former British India displaced up to Soon after gaining their independence, India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations, but the violent partition and reciprocal territorial claims quickly overshadowed their relationship.
The war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region. The dispute over this region originated in the process of decolonization in South Asia. When the British colony of India gained its independence in , it was partitioned into two separate entities: the secular nation of India and the predominantly Muslim nation of Pakistan. Pakistan was composed of two noncontiguous regions, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by Indian territory.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. AbstractThe chapter studies different aspects of the sub-conflict of Kashmir that has become the one of the most dangerous issue not only in South Asia but also in the world. It is so important that it might be studied as a full conflict in itself.
The region of Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world.
Toward a Kashmir Endgame? How India and Pakistan Could Negotiate a Lasting Solution
This report explores the strategies India and Pakistan have adopted toward Kashmir in the year since August , and examines a potential road map for resolving the Kashmir conflict. This report examines the insurgency and militancy in Kashmir and the India-Pakistan conflict over Kashmir in the wake of the major constitutional changes carried out by India in August Happymon Jacob is an associate professor of diplomacy and disarmament at the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi. He is a columnist with The Hindu, hosts a weekly show on national security at The Wire. The United States and India inked on October 27 a key agreement that will help New Delhi get real-time access to American geospatial intelligence.
With continued violence in Kashmir and a heightened threat of terrorist activity by Pakistan-based militant groups, tensions and concerns over a serious military confrontation between nuclear-armed neighbors India and Pakistan remain high. In August , following a deployment of tens of thousands of additional troops and paramilitary forces to the region, the Indian government moved to revoke Article of the Indian constitution, removing the special status of Jammu and Kashmir. India-administered Kashmir remains under lockdown , with internet and phone services intermittently cutoff and thousands of people detained. Pakistan retaliated a day later with air strikes in Indian-administered Kashmir. Territorial disputes over the Kashmir region sparked two of the three major Indo-Pakistani wars in and , and a limited war in Although both countries have maintained a fragile cease-fire since , they regularly exchange fire across the contested border, known as the Line of Control. Both sides accuse the other of violating the cease-fire and claim to be shooting in response to attacks.
The agreement between Pakistan's president, Pervez Musharraf, and India's new prime minister, Manmohan Singh, to continue talks on all contentious issues including Kashmir has inspired optimism about reduced tensions in South Asia. If decades of conflict are to be settled, however, the two sides must both do much more to address grievances and deal with the legacies of a half century and avoid too ambitious an effort to attempt everything at once. They need to foster all forms of bilateral contact and improve the lives of Kashmiris, who have borne the worst of the conflict. Dialogue will have to be expanded beyond high governmental levels if real constituencies for peace are to be nurtured. This report builds on previous work published by ICG on Kashmir and India-Pakistan relations and was written after extensive consultations with experts representing various viewpoints.
Он готов был спорить на что угодно, хоть на собственную жизнь, потому что ясно представлял себе весь сценарий. Этот звонок будет для Хейла полной неожиданностью. Он запаникует и в конце концов, столкнувшись с группой вооруженных людей, ничего не сможет поделать.
Никакого представления о пунктуальности. Он позвонил бы Северной Дакоте сам, но у него не было номера его телефона. Нуматака терпеть не мог вести дела подобным образом, он ненавидел, когда хозяином положения был кто-то .
Он искал глазами открытую дверь или ворота - любой выход из этого бесконечного каньона, - но ничего не. Улочка начала сужаться. - Soccoro! - Его голос звучал еле слышно. - Помогите.
Он поспешил избавиться от покровительственного тона. - Извините, что я вас побеспокоил, но скажите: вы, случайно, не были сегодня на площади Испании. Глаза старика сузились. - Вы из муниципалитета. - Нет, вообще-то я… - Из туристического бюро.
Стратмор замолчал, словно боясь сказать что-то, о чем ему придется пожалеть. Наконец он поднял голову: - ТРАНСТЕКСТ наткнулся на нечто непостижимое. - Он опять замолчал. Сьюзан ждала продолжения, но его не последовало. - Больше трех часов.