Air Water And Land Pollution Pdf

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Soil Contamination, Risk Assessment and Remediation

One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans.

Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer.

Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans.

Carbon monoxide can even provoke direct poisoning when breathed in at high levels. Heavy metals such as lead, when absorbed into the human body, can lead to direct poisoning or chronic intoxication, depending on exposure.

Diseases occurring from the aforementioned substances include principally respiratory problems such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD , asthma, bronchiolitis, and also lung cancer, cardiovascular events, central nervous system dysfunctions, and cutaneous diseases. Last but not least, climate change resulting from environmental pollution affects the geographical distribution of many infectious diseases, as do natural disasters.

The only way to tackle this problem is through public awareness coupled with a multidisciplinary approach by scientific experts; national and international organizations must address the emergence of this threat and propose sustainable solutions.

The interactions between humans and their physical surroundings have been extensively studied, as multiple human activities influence the environment. The environment is a coupling of the biotic living organisms and microorganisms and the abiotic hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere. Pollution is defined as the introduction into the environment of substances harmful to humans and other living organisms. Pollutants are harmful solids, liquids, or gases produced in higher than usual concentrations that reduce the quality of our environment.

Human activities have an adverse effect on the environment by polluting the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the soil in which plants grow. Although the industrial revolution was a great success in terms of technology, society, and the provision of multiple services, it also introduced the production of huge quantities of pollutants emitted into the air that are harmful to human health. Without any doubt, the global environmental pollution is considered an international public health issue with multiple facets.

Social, economic, and legislative concerns and lifestyle habits are related to this major problem. Clearly, urbanization and industrialization are reaching unprecedented and upsetting proportions worldwide in our era.

Anthropogenic air pollution is one of the biggest public health hazards worldwide, given that it accounts for about 9 million deaths per year 1.

Without a doubt, all of the aforementioned are closely associated with climate change, and in the event of danger, the consequences can be severe for mankind 2. Climate changes and the effects of global planetary warming seriously affect multiple ecosystems, causing problems such as food safety issues, ice and iceberg melting, animal extinction, and damage to plants 3 , 4.

Air pollution has various health effects. The health of susceptible and sensitive individuals can be impacted even on low air pollution days. Short-term exposure to air pollutants is closely related to COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, asthma, respiratory disease, and high rates of hospitalization a measurement of morbidity.

The long-term effects associated with air pollution are chronic asthma, pulmonary insufficiency, cardiovascular diseases, and cardiovascular mortality.

According to a Swedish cohort study, diabetes seems to be induced after long-term air pollution exposure 5. Moreover, air pollution seems to have various malign health effects in early human life, such as respiratory, cardiovascular, mental, and perinatal disorders 3 , leading to infant mortality or chronic disease in adult age 6.

National reports have mentioned the increased risk of morbidity and mortality 1. These studies were conducted in many places around the world and show a correlation between daily ranges of particulate matter PM concentration and daily mortality.

Climate shifts and global planetary warming 3 could aggravate the situation. Besides, increased hospitalization an index of morbidity has been registered among the elderly and susceptible individuals for specific reasons. Fine and ultrafine particulate matter seems to be associated with more serious illnesses 6 , as it can invade the deepest parts of the airways and more easily reach the bloodstream.

Air pollution mainly affects those living in large urban areas, where road emissions contribute the most to the degradation of air quality. There is also a danger of industrial accidents, where the spread of a toxic fog can be fatal to the populations of the surrounding areas.

The dispersion of pollutants is determined by many parameters, most notably atmospheric stability and wind 6. In developing countries 7 , the problem is more serious due to overpopulation and uncontrolled urbanization along with the development of industrialization.

This leads to poor air quality, especially in countries with social disparities and a lack of information on sustainable management of the environment. The use of fuels such as wood fuel or solid fuel for domestic needs due to low incomes exposes people to bad-quality, polluted air at home.

It is of note that three billion people around the world are using the above sources of energy for their daily heating and cooking needs 8. In developing countries, the women of the household seem to carry the highest risk for disease development due to their longer duration exposure to the indoor air pollution 8 , 9.

Due to its fast industrial development and overpopulation, China is one of the Asian countries confronting serious air pollution problems 10 , The lung cancer mortality observed in China is associated with fine particles As stated already, long-term exposure is associated with deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system 3 , 5.

However, it is interesting to note that cardiovascular diseases have mostly been observed in developed and high-income countries rather than in the developing low-income countries exposed highly to air pollution Extreme air pollution is recorded in India, where the air quality reaches hazardous levels.

New Delhi is one of the more polluted cities in India. Flights in and out of New Delhi International Airport are often canceled due to the reduced visibility associated with air pollution. Pollution is occurring both in urban and rural areas in India due to the fast industrialization, urbanization, and rise in use of motorcycle transportation. Nevertheless, biomass combustion associated with heating and cooking needs and practices is a major source of household air pollution in India and in Nepal 14 , There is spatial heterogeneity in India, as areas with diverse climatological conditions and population and education levels generate different indoor air qualities, with higher PM 2.

The cold climate of the North Indian areas may be the main reason for this, as longer periods at home and more heating are necessary compared to in the tropical climate of Southern India.

Household air pollution in India is associated with major health effects, especially in women and young children, who stay indoors for longer periods. Chronic obstructive respiratory disease CORD and lung cancer are mostly observed in women, while acute lower respiratory disease is seen in young children under 5 years of age An association of pollution with mortality was reported on the basis of monitoring of outdoor pollution in six US metropolitan cities In every case, it seems that mortality was closely related to the levels of fine, inhalable, and sulfate particles more than with the levels of total particulate pollution, aerosol acidity, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen dioxide Based on the magnitude of the public health impact, it is certain that different kinds of interventions should be taken into account.

Success and effectiveness in controlling air pollution, specifically at the local level, have been reported. Adequate technological means are applied considering the source and the nature of the emission as well as its impact on health and the environment. Without a doubt, a detailed emission inventory must record all sources in a given area.

Beyond considering the above sources and their nature, topography and meteorology should also be considered, as stated previously. Assessment of the control policies and methods is often extrapolated from the local to the regional and then to the global scale. Air pollution may be dispersed and transported from one region to another area located far away.

Air pollution management means the reduction to acceptable levels or possible elimination of air pollutants whose presence in the air affects our health or the environmental ecosystem. Private and governmental entities and authorities implement actions to ensure the air quality Air quality standards and guidelines were adopted for the different pollutants by the WHO and EPA as a tool for the management of air quality 1 , These standards have to be compared to the emissions inventory standards by causal analysis and dispersion modeling in order to reveal the problematic areas Inventories are generally based on a combination of direct measurements and emissions modeling As an example, we state here the control measures at the source through the use of catalytic converters in cars.

These are devices that turn the pollutants and toxic gases produced from combustion engines into less-toxic pollutants by catalysis through redox reactions In Greece, the use of private cars was restricted by tracking their license plates in order to reduce traffic congestion during rush hour Concerning industrial emissions, collectors and closed systems can keep the air pollution to the minimal standards imposed by legislation Current strategies to improve air quality require an estimation of the economic value of the benefits gained from proposed programs.

These proposed programs by public authorities, and directives are issued with guidelines to be respected. While both standards and directives are based on different mechanisms, significant success has been achieved in the reduction of overall emissions and associated health and environmental effects In this vein, funds have been financing, directly or indirectly, projects related to air quality along with the technical infrastructure to maintain good air quality.

These plans focus on an inventory of databases from air quality environmental planning awareness campaigns. Moreover, pollution measures of air emissions may be taken for vehicles, machines, and industries in urban areas. Technological innovation can only be successful if it is able to meet the needs of society. In this sense, technology must reflect the decision-making practices and procedures of those involved in risk assessment and evaluation and act as a facilitator in providing information and assessments to enable decision makers to make the best decisions possible.

Summarizing the aforementioned in order to design an effective air quality control strategy, several aspects must be considered: environmental factors and ambient air quality conditions, engineering factors and air pollutant characteristics, and finally, economic operating costs for technological improvement and administrative and legal costs. Considering the economic factor, competitiveness through neoliberal concepts is offering a solution to environmental problems The development of environmental governance, along with technological progress, has initiated the deployment of a dialogue.

Environmental politics has created objections and points of opposition between different political parties, scientists, media, and governmental and non-governmental organizations Radical environmental activism actions and movements have been created The rise of the new information and communication technologies ICTs are many times examined as to whether and in which way they have influenced means of communication and social movements such as activism Nowadays, multiple digital technologies can be used to produce a digital activism outcome on environmental issues.

More specifically, devices with online capabilities such as computers or mobile phones are being used as a way to pursue change in political and social affairs In the present paper, we focus on the sources of environmental pollution in relation to public health and propose some solutions and interventions that may be of interest to environmental legislators and decision makers.

It is known that the majority of environmental pollutants are emitted through large-scale human activities such as the use of industrial machinery, power-producing stations, combustion engines, and cars.

Some other human activities are also influencing our environment to a lesser extent, such as field cultivation techniques, gas stations, fuel tanks heaters, and cleaning procedures 32 , as well as several natural sources, such as volcanic and soil eruptions and forest fires. The classification of air pollutants is based mainly on the sources producing pollution. Therefore, it is worth mentioning the four main sources, following the classification system: Major sources, Area sources, Mobile sources, and Natural sources.

Major sources include the emission of pollutants from power stations, refineries, and petrochemicals, the chemical and fertilizer industries, metallurgical and other industrial plants, and, finally, municipal incineration.

Indoor area sources include domestic cleaning activities, dry cleaners, printing shops, and petrol stations. Mobile sources include automobiles, cars, railways, airways, and other types of vehicles. Finally, natural sources include, as stated previously, physical disasters 33 such as forest fire, volcanic erosion, dust storms, and agricultural burning. However, many classification systems have been proposed. Another type of classification is a grouping according to the recipient of the pollution, as follows:.

Soil contamination

We tend to look skywards when talking about pollution, but this problem is not confined to our skies. The soil in which our fruit and vegetables grow is also suffering its consequences, the effects of which getting to us directly, for instance, through the aforementioned foodstuffs. The time has come to look after what lies under our feet! Soil pollution is mostly caused by chemical substances produced by human activity. The soil is the skin of the earth, a mantle full of scars, thousand-year-old wrinkles and more recent injuries caused both by man and nature itself. Some of these ulcers are incurable — such as the extinction of species —, whereas others jeopardise health and food security, all of which threaten the well-being of the world's 3.

Pollutants are assumed to have originated from agricultural fields and to have reached a river attached to suspensa eroded from a watershed. Like the, others, land pollution has also serious conse-, quences on both humans, animals and other living, organisms, and environment. Causes of Land Pollution 1. Land Pollution is caused due to various human activities and also because of natural factors. Today, we have brought you the causes and effects of it. Prevention of Land Pollution. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere.

When many of us think of pollution, images of smoggy cities and litter-infested oceans come to mind. While littering and gasoline-fueled cars are a major contributor to pollution, there are many other influences that are important to be aware of. Essentially, pollution occurs when substances are introduced to the environment that have harmful effects, damaging the quality of land, water, and air. The cause is the accumulation of solid and liquid waste materials that contaminate groundwater and soil. These waste materials are often referred to as municipal solid waste MSW , which includes both hazardous and non-hazardous waste. When waste is deposited onto an area of land, the permeability of the soil formations below the waste can increase or reduce the risk of land pollution.

Assessment of sources of air, water, and land pollution: a guide to rapid source inventory techniques and their (‎Mb)‎.

What is Land Pollution?

Land pollution , the deposition of solid or liquid waste materials on land or underground in a manner that can contaminate the soil and groundwater , threaten public health , and cause unsightly conditions and nuisances. MSW includes nonhazardous garbage, rubbish, and trash from homes, institutions e. Garbage contains moist and decomposable biodegradable food wastes e. Hazardous wastes include harmful and dangerous substances generated primarily as liquids but also as solids, sludges, or gases by various chemical manufacturing companies, petroleum refineries , paper mills, smelters, machine shops, dry cleaners , automobile repair shops, and many other industries or commercial facilities.

One of our era's greatest scourges is air pollution, on account not only of its impact on climate change but also its impact on public and individual health due to increasing morbidity and mortality. There are many pollutants that are major factors in disease in humans. Among them, Particulate Matter PM , particles of variable but very small diameter, penetrate the respiratory system via inhalation, causing respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, reproductive and central nervous system dysfunctions, and cancer. Despite the fact that ozone in the stratosphere plays a protective role against ultraviolet irradiation, it is harmful when in high concentration at ground level, also affecting the respiratory and cardiovascular system. Furthermore, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs , dioxins, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs are all considered air pollutants that are harmful to humans.

NCBI Bookshelf. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Environmental pollution has many facets, and the resultant health risks include diseases in almost all organ systems.

This is because we can see the effects caused by the pollutants and their extent very clearly.

Land Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Prevention

Soil contamination or soil pollution as part of land degradation is caused by the presence of xenobiotics human-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons , polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene and benzo a pyrene , solvents , pesticides, lead , and other heavy metals. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of chemical substance.

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination. Environment pollution is a burning topic of the day. Air, water and soil are being polluted alike.

The land within the boundaries of the United States—covering nearly 2. The use of land, what is applied to or released on it, and its condition change constantly: there are changes in the types and amounts of resources that are extracted, the distribution and nature of land cover types, the amounts and types of chemicals used and wastes managed, and perceptions of the land's value. While human activities on land including food and fiber production, land development, manufacturing, and resource extraction provide multiple economic, social, and environmental benefits to communities, they can also involve the creation, use, or release of chemicals and pollutants that can affect the environment and human health. EPA works with other federal agencies, states, and partners to protect land resources, ecosystems, environmental processes, and uses of land through regulation of chemicals, waste, and pollutants, and through cleanup and restoration of contaminated lands. The complex responsibilities of land management underscore the challenges of collecting data and assessing trends on the state of land. Numerous agencies and individuals have responsibilities for managing and protecting land in the United States. Responsibilities may include protecting resources associated with land e.

Land Pollution. Sources: Prevention: •. Chemical and nuclear plants. •. Industrial factories. •. Oil refineries. •. Human sewage. •. Mining. •. Littering.

Офицер покачал головой, словно не веря своим глазам. - Я должен был вам рассказать… но думал, что тот тип просто псих. - Какой тип? - Беккер хмуро взглянул на полицейского.

Он был уверен, что чрезмерный нажим не приведет ни к чему хорошему. - Расслабьтесь, мистер Беккер. Если будет ошибка, мы попробуем снова, пока не добьемся успеха. - Плохой совет, мистер Беккер, - огрызнулся Джабба.

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