File Name: production and productivity in indian agriculture in madhya pradesh .zip
Some of the major problems and their possible solutions have been discussed as follows. Indian agriculture is plagued by several problems; some of them are natural and some others are manmade. The seemingly abundance of net sown area of
- Farming systems in India
- Nation’s top wheat contributor tag: How Madhya Pradesh stole Punjab’s crown
- Estimated crop plantation area of Madhya Pradesh India FY 2020, by type
- Wheat Production in India: Trends and Prospects
Although Punjab stayed the undisputed leader in wheat procurement for the national pool till , Madhya Pradesh MP this year surpassed Punjab to become the number one contributor of wheat. Punjab, however, is still a way ahead from MP as far as per hectare productivity of wheat is concerned, which is around 52 per cent more per hectare than MP. The Indian Express explains how MP managed to beat Punjab in procurement despite this huge gap in per hectare productivity.
Farming Systems in India are strategically utilized, according to the locations where they are most suitable. The farming systems that significantly contribute to the agriculture of India are subsistence farming , organic farming , industrial farming. India is very dependent on its monsoon cycle for large crop yields.
Farming systems in India
A brief intercountry comparison of productivity, production and area coupled with regional comparison within India has been attempted to give an idea about the contribution of country and regions, respectively, for global and national food security. The milestones in Indian wheat programme and research outcomes were highlighted post-AICRP along with the vision and strategies set for against diverse production challenges. Regional disparities, zone-wise production constraints and research programmes for achieving the set production target were briefed.
The chapter concludes with possible interventions in strengthening the complete wheat value chain for ensuring food security for the future generation. Recent Advances in Grain Crops Research. Cereals play a pivotal role to satisfy the global food demand of growing population, particularly in developing nations where cereal-based production system is the only predominant source of nutrition and calorie intake [ 1 , 2 ].
Wheat Triticum aestivum L. Wheat is the major staple food crop, providing almost half of all calories in the region of North Africa and West and Central Asia. Being next to rice, wheat constitutes one of the key sources of protein in least developed countries and middle-income nations and in terms of calories and dietary intake. The crop being cultivated as winter and spring in the world, winter wheat is grown in cold countries like Europe, the USA, Australia, Russian Federation, etc.
India, being blessed and enriched with a diverse agroecological condition, ensuring food and nutrition security to a majority of the Indian population through production and steady supply particularly in the recent past, is the second largest producer of wheat worldwide [ 4 , 5 , 6 ].
Wheat is accessible across the country and consumed as various processed forms from prehistoric times [ 4 ]. After independence, India was net deficit in food production and had to import wheat for domestic consumption. After the Green Revolution, the nation has maintained strategic distance from famine even during unfavorable weather conditions.
Under this project, several high-yielding wheat varieties have been developed which became extensively popular and adopted by the farming community. Apart from the aforementioned varieties, viz.
It is a premier organization under the aegis of ICAR coordinating the multidisciplinary and multilocation testing of varieties in different AICRP centres across the different ecosystems for enhancing and sustaining the wheat production [ 8 ]. At present, there are 29 funded centres located in different agroclimatic regions across the country supporting the multidisciplinary research.
The project, hitherto, has contributed in the release of around high-yielding improved wheat varieties comprising bread, durum and dicoccum wheat. Over the years, prominent improvements have been made in the development arena post inception of the coordinated project Figure 1.
A decadal analysis of productivity growth across major food commodities indicates that wheat production growth has outperformed rice and pulses for the past 5 decades since Overall scenario indicated that wheat production has grown at 4.
In India wheat crop is cultivated in Rabi season. It is normally sown during November and harvested between March and April. Tables 1 and 2 furnish recent scenario in wheat area, production and productivity.
The cultivated area under wheat at national level has shown increasing trend, from Uttar Pradesh has largest share in area with 9. The production of wheat has also showed an increasing trend, from The major source of this increase in production is mainly attributed to expansion in area followed by marginal increase in productivity.
The maximum quantum jump has been noticed in Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand which almost doubled their production from 9.
However, 1. This rise in productivity is due to adoption of high-yielding varieties coupled with other inputs. The traditional wheat-growing states Punjab and Haryana have highest productivity than the national productivity [ 10 ]. However, the productivity of Haryana has declined which pose a serious matter of concern. Quinquennial data on wheat area, production and yield for India indicates that there is a variation in crop acreage that declined to However, the production of wheat has increased significantly from Increase in production was largely attributed to rise in productivity levels registered across the wheat-growing regions.
Wheat is one of the predominant staple foods and a main cereal crop of many diets around the world. Table 3 furnishes the current scenario of area, production and yield of wheat in the world. However, the average wheat yield in major wheat-growing countries is significantly low, and only China has maximum yield 5. However, in India, in comparison to its competing country, China, the per day productivity is almost the same.
The major source for the increase in production is mainly attributed to increase in productivity followed by marginal increase in area in major wheat-growing countries Figure 4.
Comparing the past two periods, the change was more prominent in wheat production, followed by area and yield Tables 1 and 2. The country on an average produced 7. The major wheat-growing states like Punjab, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan have witnessed positive change in area and yield and production [ 6 ].
Surprisingly, Jharkhand registered positive change in area, yield and production, while Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, the major traditional wheat-growing states, witnessed a negative change in production due to negative change in yield. Regional disparities in area and yield had a significant impact on the wheat production. Average production in Madhya Pradesh showed an increase by 6. However, the production has declined in Uttar Pradesh 1. Statewise comparison of area and production for — shows that Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh and Haryana were the major contributors to the national production Figure 5.
However, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh retained the status of higher productivity for many years. The scope for additional production of these states has been limited due to stagnation of wheat acreage and yield. This indicates that these states almost reached their saturation in wheat cultivation and production. Potential exists for states like Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh to explore for additional wheat production in the coming years.
Production constraints are manifold and vary from crop to crop and between regions. Wheat production not only faces the above routine challenges, but the intensity gets magnified in the context of climate change owing to its vulnerability [ 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 ].
In India a significant part of wheat area is under heat stress, and Gangetic plains and central and peninsular India are the most heat-stressed regions, whereas it is moderate in northwestern parts of Indo-Gangetic Plains [ 19 ]. Variability in climate is also one of the biggest environmental threats to Indian agriculture, potentially impacting the wheat production and security. After the Green Revolution, the productivity of wheat has been significantly increased with the increase in input usage, plant protection chemicals and irrigated areas.
The excessive use of fertilizer, chemicals and irrigation has degraded the fertility of the soil and also caused a reduction in groundwater table. The monocropping system led to deterioration in soil quality. If the current trend continues, the country will face a serious problem in utilization of scarce natural resources. In India about 4. Even though soil amendments and proper drainage are the more constructive solution, pace of reclamation is not substantial.
This will significantly reduce the wheat yield. As year passes, the pests of wheat have developed some resistance even though controlled under contingent situation. If not, a new range of pests and diseases have been emerging putting a serious constraint on the wheat productivity. Adoption system and germplasm dissemination in India have been made in formal organized and informal unorganized ways [ 22 ].
Further, a majority of farmers in India have lack of awareness of improved wheat varieties due to weak linkages [ 19 ]. The development and diffusion of improved varieties are crucial for achieving target production of wheat.
Volatility in prices of agricultural commodities has received considerable attention in the recent past among producers, consumers and policy makers. Price fluctuations create an uncertain farming situation threatening wheat production and have a negative impact on the welfare of wheat growers. Further, volatility in prices of wheat in international market hinders the smooth flow of trade across nations.
Over the years, a visible declining trend in farm holding size has been observed and is another major concern for the nation as a whole. This is caused by fragmentation of farmland owing to nuclear family system and decline in cultivable area due to urbanization. Estimate from the agricultural census — reports that the average operational holding in India was 1. Among major wheat-growing states, average operational holding was highest in the case of Punjab 3.
Declining farm size and conversion of farmland to residential area are the major setbacks with respect to food production in general and wheat production in particular. A major concern among policy makers is the declining total factor productivity over the years owing to stagnating yield levels with increased use of inputs and resource services. It is a major concern in the intensive cropping areas wherein rice-wheat is widely under cultivation.
This can be countered by adoption of improved technologies coupled with the use of optimal resources.
The constraints in wheat production are region-specific Table 4 , and it requires setting research priorities to address them. Rust, infestation of weeds such as Phalaris minor , wild oat, late sowing, low plant population, etc. Concerted research should focus to break the yield barriers in gradual manner and develop genotypes tailored for specific wheat-growing regions.
Production of segregating populations for lines of interest identified in primary germplasm screens. Use of existing landrace x elite segregating populations to identify QTL controlling traits of interest. Development of informative genetic markers and their use in commercial wheat breeding programmes. Innumerable new molecular markers in genomic regions of choice to facilitate large-scale cloning of new genes.
Understanding temporal and tissue-specific gene expression in response to developmental and environmental cues. Uncovering molecular basis of complex adaptation syndromes including tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Designing of a genome-wide perfect marker system based on SNPs in entire gene space of the species.
Promotion of resource conservation technologies [ 25 ]. Awareness among farmers of new improved varieties and production technologies for yield as well as income enhancement [ 26 , 27 ]. Wheat atlas: creation and updating regional-level database on parameters like area, production, yield, yield gaps and input usage. Access to critical inputs for timely sowing like improved seeds particularly in eastern UP, Bihar, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh; access to fertilizers, irrigation water and farm machinery [ 28 ].
Agriculture transformation is of utmost importance for regional development. Cutting-edge research involving multidiscipline is the need of the hour and is expected to develop superior genotypes breaking the yield barrier.
In addition, productivity has to be increased through massive efforts from extension personnel who serve as change agents among the farming community.
A reorientation in price policy fair price system benefiting both producers and consumers, deficient payment system to producers for difference between the market and procurement price and cash transfers to producers under colossal loss , seed policy quality seed production and ensuring its availability for all and credit policy timely distribution with minimum administrative work is highly required to support the existing production system and to carry forward.
Nation’s top wheat contributor tag: How Madhya Pradesh stole Punjab’s crown
A brief intercountry comparison of productivity, production and area coupled with regional comparison within India has been attempted to give an idea about the contribution of country and regions, respectively, for global and national food security. The milestones in Indian wheat programme and research outcomes were highlighted post-AICRP along with the vision and strategies set for against diverse production challenges. Regional disparities, zone-wise production constraints and research programmes for achieving the set production target were briefed. The chapter concludes with possible interventions in strengthening the complete wheat value chain for ensuring food security for the future generation. Recent Advances in Grain Crops Research. Cereals play a pivotal role to satisfy the global food demand of growing population, particularly in developing nations where cereal-based production system is the only predominant source of nutrition and calorie intake [ 1 , 2 ].
Madhya Pradesh got an honour of the best agriculture state of the India in the it is observed that the overall growth of agriculture production and productivity of the () hashimototorii.org
Estimated crop plantation area of Madhya Pradesh India FY 2020, by type
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The same trend is observed for pulses, where it is the second highest producer. State of Agriculture of India. Agricultural productivity depends on several factors. These include the availability and quality of agricultural inputs such as land, water, seeds and fertilizers, access to agricultural credit and crop insurance, assurance of remunerative prices for agricultural produce, and storage and marketing infrastructure, among others. This report provides an overview of the state of agriculture in India.
Она оказалась в тоннеле, очень узком, с низким потолком. Перед ней, исчезая где-то в темноте, убегали вдаль две желтые линии. Подземная шоссейная дорога… Сьюзан медленно шла по этому туннелю, то и дело хватаясь за стены, чтобы сохранить равновесие.
Вой сирен вывел его из задумчивости. Его аналитический ум искал выход из создавшегося положения. Сознание нехотя подтверждало то, о чем говорили чувства.
Wheat Production in India: Trends and Prospects
Крикливый, тучный, мерзкий немец! - Клушар заморгал, стараясь переменить положение, и, не обращая внимания на боль, продолжал: - Ну чистая скотина, килограмм сто двадцать, не меньше. Он вцепился в эту красотку так, словно боялся, что она сбежит, - и я бы ее отлично понял. Ей-ей. Обхватил ее своими ручищами. Да еще хвастался, что снял ее на весь уик-энд за три сотни долларов. Это он должен был упасть замертво, а не бедолага азиат. - Клушар глотал ртом воздух, и Беккер начал волноваться.
Но. Увы, она уже знала ответ. Так вот какова месть Танкадо. Уничтожение ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Уже несколько лет Танкадо пытался рассказать миру о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, но ему никто не хотел верить. Поэтому он решил уничтожить это чудовище в одиночку.
farmers the necessary skills and knowledge to increase productivity, improve the quality Madhya Pradesh is among the top ten mango producing states in India hashimototorii.org%20Profile%pdf.
Но кровь… - Поверхностная царапина, мадам. Мы залепили ее пластырем. Сьюзан лишилась дара речи. Перед камерой появился агент Смит. - Мы выстрелили в него новым Джей-23, это нервно-паралитическое вещество продолжительного действия. Конечно, это чертовски болезненно, но нам нужно было его остановить. - Не волнуйтесь, мадам, - заверил второй агент.
Мануэль - это. Чего желаете. - Сеньор Ролдан из агентства сопровождения Белена сказал мне, что вы… Взмахом руки консьерж заставил Беккера остановиться и нервно оглядел фойе.
В темноте все в Третьем узле казалось чужим. Но было что-то. Сьюзан на мгновение заколебалась и оглянулась на заблокированную дверь. Всего двадцать минут, подумала. Повернувшись к терминалу Хейла, Сьюзан вдруг уловила странный мускусный запах - очень необычный для Третьего узла.
Он знал: все уверены, что он ушел. В шуме, доносившемся из-под пола шифровалки, в его голове звучал девиз лаборатории систем безопасности: Действуй, объясняться будешь. В мире высоких ставок, в котором от компьютерной безопасности зависело слишком многое, минуты зачастую означали спасение системы или ее гибель. Трудно было найти время для предварительного обоснования защитных мер.
Ничего не выйдет, - пробормотал. В разделе Служба сопровождения в справочнике было только три строчки; впрочем, ничего иного все равно не оставалось. Беккер знал лишь, что немец был с рыжеволосой спутницей, а в Испании это само по себе большая редкость.
Парень крупного сложения и прильнувшая к нему сзади девушка въехали на стоянку на стареньком мотоцикле Веспа-250. Юбка девушки высоко задралась от ветра, но она не обращала на это ни малейшего внимания.