File Name: occupational therapy in psychiatry and mental health .zip
- National practice standards for the mental health workforce 2013
- Mental Health
- Reviewing the Theory and Practice of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health Rehabilitation
- Occupational Therapy Interventions for Adults Living With Serious Mental Illness
These standards outline capabilities that all mental health professionals should achieve in their work. They are intended to complement discipline-specific practice standards or competencies of the professions of nursing, occupational therapy, psychiatry, psychology and social work.
Occupational therapy practitioners have education, skills, and knowledge to provide occupational therapy interventions for adults living with serious mental illness. Evidence-based interventions demonstrate that occupational therapy practitioners can enable this population to engage in meaningful occupations, participate in community living, and contribute to society. Each article in the Evidence Connection series summarizes evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case.
National practice standards for the mental health workforce 2013
Occupational therapy OT is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations , of individuals, groups, or communities. It is an allied health profession performed by occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants OTA. OTs often work with people with mental health problems, disabilities, injuries, or impairments. The American Occupational Therapy Association defines an occupational therapist as someone who "helps people across their lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities occupations.
Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate fully in school and social situations, injury rehabilitation, and providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes. Typically, occupational therapists are university-educated professionals and must pass a licensing exam to practice. The earliest evidence of using occupations as a method of therapy can be found in ancient times.
Later, the Roman Celsus prescribed music, travel, conversation and exercise to his patients. However, by medieval times the use of these interventions with people with mental illness was rare, if not nonexistent. In 18th-century Europe, revolutionaries such as Philippe Pinel and Johann Christian Reil reformed the hospital system. Instead of the use of metal chains and restraints, their institutions used rigorous work and leisure activities in the late 18th century.
This was the Moral Treatment era, developed in Europe during the Age of Enlightenment , where the roots of occupational therapy lie. It re-emerged in the early decades of the 20th century as Occupational Therapy. The Arts and Crafts movement that took place between and also impacted occupational therapy. In the US, a recently industrialized country, the arts and crafts societies emerged against the monotony and lost autonomy of factory work.
Slagle, who was one of the founding members of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy NSPOT , proposed habit training as a primary occupational therapy model of treatment. Based on the philosophy that engagement in meaningful routines shape a person's wellbeing, habit training focused on creating structure and balance between work, rest and leisure.
Although habit training was initially developed to treat individuals with mental health conditions, its basic tenets are apparent in modern treatment models that are utilized across a wide scope of client populations.
In Slagle opened the first occupational therapy training program, the Henry B. Slagle went on to serve as both AOTA president and secretary. The health profession of occupational therapy was conceived in the early s as a reflection of the Progressive Era. Early professionals merged highly valued ideals, such as having a strong work ethic and the importance of crafting with one's own hands with scientific and medical principles. Other titles such as "work-cure","ergo therapy" ergo being the Greek root for "work" , and "creative occupations" were discussed as substitutes, but ultimately, none possessed the broad meaning that the practice of occupational therapy demanded in order to capture the many forms of treatment that existed from the beginning.
The emergence of occupational therapy challenged the views of mainstream scientific medicine. Instead of focusing purely on the medical model , occupational therapists argued that a complex combination of social, economic, and biological reasons cause dysfunction.
Principles and techniques were borrowed from many disciplines—including but not limited to physical therapy , nursing , psychiatry , rehabilitation , self-help , orthopedics , and social work —to enrich the profession's scope. Between and , the founders defined the realm of practice and developed supporting theories. By the early s, AOTA had established educational guidelines and accreditation procedures. The early twentieth century was a time in which the rising incidence of disability related to industrial accidents, tuberculosis, World War I, and mental illness brought about an increasing social awareness of the issues involved.
The entry of the United States into World War I was also a crucial event in the history of the profession. Up until this time, occupational therapy had been concerned primarily with the treatment of people with mental illness. However, U. The military enlisted the assistance of NSPOT to recruit and train over 1, "reconstruction aides" to help with the rehabilitation of those wounded in the war. With entry into World War II and the ensuing skyrocketing demand for occupational therapists to treat those injured in the war, the field of occupational therapy underwent dramatic growth and change.
Occupational therapists needed to be skilled not only in the use of constructive activities such as crafts, but also increasingly in the use of activities of daily living. There was a struggle to keep people in the profession during the post-war years. Emphasis shifted from the altruistic war-time mentality to the financial, professional, and personal satisfaction that comes with being a therapist.
To make the profession more appealing, practice was standardized, as was the curriculum. Entry and exit criteria were established, and the American Occupational Therapy Association advocated for steady employment, decent wages, and fair working conditions.
Via these methods, occupational therapy sought and obtained medical legitimacy in the s. Eleanor Clarke Slagle proposed a month course of training in , and these standards were adopted in Educational standards were expanded to a total training time of months in to place the requirements for professional entry on par with those of other professions.
The first textbook was published in the United States for occupational therapy in , edited by Helen S. Willard and Clare S. The profession continued to grow and redefine itself in the s. The profession also began to assess the potential for the use of trained assistants in the attempt to address the ongoing shortage of qualified therapists, and educational standards for occupational therapy assistants were implemented in New developments in the areas of neurobehavioral research led to new conceptualizations and new treatment approaches, possibly the most groundbreaking being the sensory integrative approach developed by A.
Jean Ayres. The profession has continued to grow and expand its scope and settings of practice. Occupational science , the study of occupation, was created in as a tool for providing evidence-based research to support and advance the practice of occupational therapy, as well as offer a basic science to study topics surrounding "occupation".
In addition, occupational therapy practitioner's roles have expanded to include political advocacy from a grassroots base to higher legislation ; for example, in PL titled the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act had a habilitation clause that was passed in large part due to AOTA's political efforts as noted in AOTA's Centennial website AOTA, The World Federation of Occupational Therapist's Resource Centre has many position statements on occupational therapy's roles regarding their participation in human rights issues.
The philosophy of occupational therapy has evolved over the history of the profession. The philosophy articulated by the founders owed much to the ideals of romanticism ,  pragmatism  and humanism , which are collectively considered the fundamental ideologies of the past century.
One of the most widely cited early papers about the philosophy of occupational therapy was presented by Adolf Meyer , a psychiatrist who had emigrated to the United States from Switzerland in the late 19th century and who was invited to present his views to a gathering of the new Occupational Therapy Society in At the time, Dr.
Meyer was one of the leading psychiatrists in the United States and head of the new psychiatry department and Phipps Clinic at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. William Rush Dunton , a supporter of the National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy, now the American Occupational Therapy Association, sought to promote the ideas that occupation is a basic human need, and that occupation is therapeutic.
From his statements came some of the basic assumptions of occupational therapy, which include:. These assumptions have been developed over time and are the basis of the values that underpin the Codes of Ethics issued by the national associations. The relevance of occupation to health and well-being remains the central theme. In the s, criticism from medicine and the multitude of disabled World War II veterans resulted in the emergence of a more reductionistic philosophy.
While this approach led to developments in technical knowledge about occupational performance, clinicians became increasingly disillusioned and re-considered these beliefs. Three commonly mentioned philosophical precepts of occupational therapy are that occupation is necessary for health, that its theories are based on holism and that its central components are people, their occupations activities , and the environments in which those activities take place.
However, there have been some dissenting voices. Mocellin, in particular, advocated abandoning the notion of health through occupation as he proclaimed it obsolete in the modern world. As well, he questioned the appropriateness of advocating holism when practice rarely supports it.
In recent times occupational therapy practitioners have challenged themselves to think more broadly about the potential scope of the profession, and expanded it to include working with groups experiencing occupational injustice stemming from sources other than disability.
An occupational therapist works systematically with a client through a sequence of actions called the occupational therapy process.
There are several versions of this process as described by numerous scholars. All practice frameworks include the components of evaluation or assessment , intervention, and outcomes. This process provides a framework through which occupational therapists assist and contribute to promoting health and ensures structure and consistency among therapists. The OTPF framework is divided into two sections: domain and process. The domain includes environment, client factors, such as the individual's motivation, health status, and status of performing occupational tasks.
The domain looks at the contextual picture to help the occupational therapist understand how to diagnose and treat the patient. The process is the actions taken by the therapist to implement a plan and strategy to treat the patient. A central element of this process model is the focus on identifying both client and therapists strengths and resources prior to developing the outcomes and action plan. The following are examples of such occupations:.
According to the Salary and Workforce Survey by the American Occupational Therapy Association, occupational therapists work in a wide-variety of practice settings including: hospitals The broad spectrum of OT practice makes it difficult to categorize the areas of practice, especially considering the differing health care systems globally.
In this section, the categorization from the American Occupational Therapy Association is used. Occupational therapists work with infants, toddlers, children, youth, and their families in a variety of settings, including schools, clinics, homes, hospitals, and the community.
In planning treatment, occupational therapists work in collaboration with parents, caregivers, teachers, or the children and teens themselves in order to develop functional goals within a variety of occupations meaningful to the young client.
Early intervention is an extremely important aspect of the daily functioning of a child between the ages of birth-3 years old. This area of practice sets the tone or standard for therapy in the school setting.
OT's who practice in early intervention develop a family's ability to care for their child with special needs and promote his or her function and participation in the most natural environment as possible. It's possible for an OT to serve as the family's service coordinator and facilitate the team process for creating an IFSP for each eligible child.
Objectives that an occupational therapist addresses with children and youth may take a variety of forms. In the United States, pediatric occupational therapists work in the school setting as a "related service" for children with an Individual Education Plan IEP. Department of Education, As a related service, occupational therapists work with children with varying disabilities to address those skills needed to access the special education program and support academic achievement and social participation throughout the school day AOTA, n.
Occupational therapists have specific knowledge to increase participation in school routines throughout the day, including:. Other settings, such as homes, hospitals, and the community are important environments where occupational therapists work with children and teens to promote their independence in meaningful, daily activities.
This therapy, provided by experienced and knowledgeable pediatric occupational therapists, was originally developed by A. Jean Ayres, an occupational therapist. Recognition of occupational therapy programs and services for children and youth is increasing worldwide.
As of , there are over , occupational therapists working worldwide many of whom work with children and academic institutions providing occupational therapy instruction. According to the American Occupational Therapy Association's AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework , 3rd Edition, the domain of occupational therapy is described as "Achieving health, well-being, and participation in life through engagement in occupation".
By examining an individual's roles, routines, environment, and occupations, occupational therapists can identify the barriers in achieving overall health, well-being and participation.
Occupational therapy OT is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations , of individuals, groups, or communities. It is an allied health profession performed by occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants OTA. OTs often work with people with mental health problems, disabilities, injuries, or impairments. The American Occupational Therapy Association defines an occupational therapist as someone who "helps people across their lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities occupations. Common occupational therapy interventions include helping children with disabilities to participate fully in school and social situations, injury rehabilitation, and providing supports for older adults experiencing physical and cognitive changes. Typically, occupational therapists are university-educated professionals and must pass a licensing exam to practice.
With focus in the areas of Member Services, Government Relations, Professional Promotion, Professional Development and Practice Support, the Society serves and represents the interests of members and promotes the profession of occupational therapy in the province of Ontario. Address: Sheppard Ave. Prospective Mentors. Prospective Mentees. Mentorship Resources. Shadowing an OT. Psychotherapy Supervision.
Please understand that our phone lines must be clear for urgent medical care needs. When this changes, we will update this web site. Please know that our vaccine supply is extremely small. They have strong observation and creative problem-solving skills, and understand human development and function across different diagnoses. Patients may have challenges in the areas of planning tasks, organizing, problem solving and decision making. They may also have difficulties with controlling emotions, which can make it difficult to function and be independent in society.
Reviewing the Theory and Practice of Occupational Therapy in Mental Health Rehabilitation
As of recent, the role of occupational therapy within PrairieCare has transitioned from the inpatient setting to a solely outpatient consultation basis. The purpose of this blog is to identify the role of occupational therapy in the mental health setting and to highlight the plethora of evidence-based approaches with children and adolescents. To put it more simply, occupational therapists help individuals get back to doing what they want to do. Occupational therapists can work with individuals with physical injuries, cognitive impairments, psychosocial dysfunction, mental illness, and developmental or learning disabilities. Occupational therapists evaluate the whole individual by looking at the transaction between client factors values, beliefs, spirituality, mental function, sensory function, etc.
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Occupational Therapy Interventions for Adults Living With Serious Mental Illness
As the only occupational therapist assigned to the psychiatry unit, Gina manages multiple occupational therapy sessions throughout the day. While patients are receiving the psychiatric care that they need, occupational therapy provides an opportunity for them to practice and enhance skills that are used in their everyday life. What role does an occupational therapist play in the patient experience on an inpatient psychiatric unit? My role is to design and implement group sessions based on the population, their needs, and their functional level. The group therapy sessions benefits patients because they are able to further develop life, coping, and leisure skills that they can continue to engage in outside of the hospital. What are the skills that are focused on during the daily group therapy sessions that you oversee?
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